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2021-06-15T15:45:19Z
Sessional Paper on Kenya Vision 2030, 2015.pdf
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Microsoft Word - VISION 2030 Sessional Paper final 09 11 12_1_.doc


Sessional paper No. 10 of 2012
On

Kenya Vision 2030


Office of the Prime Minister
Ministry of state for Planning, National

Development and Vision 2030


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TABEL OF CONTENTS

Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION: MACROECONOMIC STRATEGY FOR LONG-TERM

DEVELOPMENT 1
1.1 Challenges and Opportunities: Vision 2030 5
1.2 Macroeconomic Framework for Vision 2030 7

Chapter 2: FOUNDATIONS FOR SOCIO-ECONOMIC TRANSFORMATION 13
2.1 Infrastructure 13
2.2 Energy as a Foundation of Vision 2030 17
2.3 Challenges 18
2.4 Measures Being Taken 18
2.5 Key projects to Be Implemented From 2008 - 2012 19
2.6 Science, Technology and Innovation 21
2.7 Land Reforms 22
2.8 Human Resource Development 24
2.9 Security 26
2.10 Public Service 28

Chapter 3: ECONOMIC PILLAR: MOVING THE ECONOMY UP THE VALUE CHAIN 31
3.1 Overview 31
3.2 Tourism 31
3.3 Agriculture 44
3.4 Wholesale and Retail Trade 63
3.5 Manufacturing 70
3.6 Business Process Outsourcing/Offshoring 77
3.7 Financial Services 87

Chapter 4: SOCIAL PILLAR: INVESTING IN THE PEOPLE OF KENYA 93
4.1 Overview 93
4.2 Education and Training 93
4.3 Health Care Delivery 104
4.4 Health and the Economy 108
4.5 Water and Sanitation 114
4.6 Environmental Management 123
4.7 Gender, Youth and Vulnerable Groups 132
4.8 Housing and Urbanisation 142
4.9 Social Equity and Poverty Reduction 152

Chapter 5: POLITICAL PILLAR: MOVING TO THE FUTURE AS ONE NATION157
5.1 Overview 157
5.2 Guiding principles 158

Chapter 6: DELIVERING THE KENYAN VISION: IMPLEMENTATION 161


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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Under the guidance of the Economic Recovery Strategy for Wealth and Employment Creation
(ERS), the Kenyan economy has recovered and resumed the path to rapid growth. The
economy is expected to grow by more than 6 per cent in 2007 from 0.6 per cent in 2002. The
growth has been widely distributed, covering all economic and social sectors and resulting in
reduction in poverty levels from 56 per cent in 2002 to 46 per cent in 2006. This growth has
not only impacted positively on education, health, gender, and environment, but also
provided more resources to meet the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) across the
economy. Currently, more resources have been devolved to the local level through schemes
such as the Constituency Development Fund, the Local Authority Transfer Fund, the
Constituency Bursary Fund, and the Constituency Aids Fund among others. Despite the
development registered under the ERS, the country continues to face constraints including
poor infrastructure, inadequate institutional reforms and inefficiency in production at firm
and household levels. On the whole, Kenyans have reason to be satisfied by the results even
though much remains to be done. ERS expires in December 2007 and Kenya will embark on
a new long-term vision to guide her development in the next 25 years.

Kenya Vision 2030 is the new long-term development blueprint for the country. It is
motivated by a collective aspiration for a better society by the year 2030. The aim of Kenya
Vision 2030 is to create “a globally competitive and prosperous country with a high quality of
life by 2030”. It aims to transform Kenya into “a newly-industrialising, middle-income
country providing a high quality of life to all its citizens in a clean and secure environment”.
Simultaneously, the Vision aspires to meet the MDGs for Kenyans by 2015. The Vision is a
product of a highly participatory, consultative and inclusive stakeholders’ process carried out
between October 2006 and May 2007. Specifically, the process involved international and
local experts, ordinary Kenyans and stakeholders from all parts of the country. Between July
and August 2007, the contents of the Vision 2030 were again subjected to open consultations
in all provinces in Kenya, before the document was finalised.

The Vision is anchored on three key pillars: economic; social; and political governance. The
economic pillar aims to achieve an average economic growth rate of 10 per cent per annum
and sustaining the same till 2030 in order to generate more resources to meet the MDGs and
vision goals. The Vision has identified a number of flagship projects in every sector to be
implemented over the Vision period and to facilitate the desired growth rate. The identified
flagship projects directly address priorities in key sectors such as agriculture, education,
health, water and the environment. The social pillar seeks to create a just, cohesive and
equitable social development in a clean and secure environment. The political pillar aims to
realise an issue-based, people-centered, result-oriented and accountable democratic system.

Foundations for Kenya Vision 2030

The economic, social and political pillars of Kenya Vision 2030 will be anchored on the
following foundations: macroeconomic stability; continuity in governance reforms;
enhanced equity and wealth creation opportunities for the poor; infrastructure; energy;
science, technology and innovation (STI); land reform; human resources development;
security; and public sector reforms.

Macroeconomic Stability for Long-Term Development: Kenyans appreciate the key role of
macroeconomic stability has played in economic recovery and rapid growth experienced by


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the country since 2003. This has resulted in low levels of inflation, strictly limited public
sector deficits, a stable exchange rate, and low interest rates. For this reason, Kenya Vision
2030 places the highest premium on the stable macroeconomic environment the country now
enjoys, and expects it to continue in the future as a matter of policy. This is the only way in
which confidence among Kenyans and investors can be created and sustained. A stable
economic environment also works in favour of the poor who stand to lose the most in periods
of high inflation. All the projects proposed under Vision 2030 will, therefore, be
implemented subject to the parameters set under the macroeconomic stability framework.

Continuity in Governance Reforms: Kenya remains fully committed to continuing
governance reforms. These will be deepened and accelerated in order to create a better
environment for doing business, and for the full enjoyment of individual rights that Kenyans
are entitled to under the constitution. Toward that end, the Government will continue and
intensify the anti-corruption programme already in place through: better investigation and
prosecution; eliminating discretionary decision-making in a public service that is prone to
bribery; public education; and judicial and legal reform. The Government also recognises
that in an open, democratic society like Kenya, the people themselves, Parliament, civil
society, and a vigilant press are the ultimate defence against abuse of office. These
institutions will continue to receive full support from the Government and from the people of
Kenya.

Enhanced Equity and Wealth Creation Opportunities for the Poor: No society can gain the
social cohesion predicted by Vision 2030 if significant sections of it live in abject poverty.
To that extent, Kenya Vision 2030 includes equity as a recurrent principle in all its economic,
social and political programmes. Special attention has been given to investment in the arid
and semi-arid districts, communities with high incidence of poverty, unemployed youth,
women, and all vulnerable groups.

Infrastructure: The 2030 Vision aspires for a country firmly interconnected through a
network of roads, railways, ports, airports, and water ways, and telecommunications. It
should provide water and modern sanitation facilities to her people. By 2030, it will become
impossible to refer to any region of our country as “remote”. To ensure that the main projects
under the economic pillar are implemented, investment in the nation’s infrastructure will be
given the highest priority.

Energy: Development projects recommended under Vision 2030 and overall economic
growth, will increase demand on Kenya’s energy supply. Currently, Kenya’s energy costs
are higher than those of her competitors. Kenya must, therefore, generate more energy and
increase efficiency in energy consumption. The Government is committed to continued
institutional reforms in the energy sector, including a strong regulatory framework,
encouraging private generators of power, and separating generation from distribution. New
sources of energy will be found through exploitation of geothermal power, coal, renewable
energy sources, and connecting Kenya to energy-surplus countries in the region.

Science, Technology and Innovation (STI): Vision 2030 proposes intensified application of
science, technology and innovation to raise productivity and efficiency levels across the three
pillars. It recognises the critical role played by research and development (R&D) in
accelerating economic development in all the newly industrialising countries of the world.
The Government will create the STI policy framework to support Vision 2030. More
resources will be devoted to scientific research, technical capabilities of the workforce, and in


iv


raising the quality of teaching mathematics, science and technology in schools, polytechnics
and universities.

Land Reform: Land is a critical resource for the socio-economic and political developments
spelt out in Vision 2030. Respect for property rights to land, whether owned by
communities, individuals or companies, is an important driver of rapid economic
transformation everywhere. The transformation expected under Vision 2030 is dependent on
a national land use policy, which, therefore, must be completed as a matter of urgency. The
policy will facilitate the process of land administration, the computerisation of land registries,
the establishment of a National Spatial Data Infrastructure in order to track land use patterns,
and the introduction of an enhanced legal framework for faster resolution of land disputes.

Human Resource Development: Kenya intends to create a globally competitive and adaptive
human resource base to meet the requirements of a rapidly industrialising economy. This
will be done through life-long training and education. As a priority, a human resource data
base will be established to facilitate better planning of human resources requirements in the
country. Furthermore, steps will be taken to raise labour productivity to international levels.
Other steps will include the establishment of new technical training institutions, as well as the
enhancement of closer collaboration between industry and training institutions.

Security: The overall ambition for the security sector under “Vision 2030” is “a society free
from danger and fear”. The Government is determined to improve security in order to attract
investment, lower the cost of doing business and to provide Kenyans with a more secure
living and working environment. Specific strategies will involve: improving the practice of
community policing; reducing the police to population ratio to recommended UN standards;
adopting information and communication technology (ICT) in crime detection and
prevention; enhancing police training and use of modern equipment in law enforcement. All
these measures will be supported by accelerated reforms in the judiciary. The country will
also implement reforms in the prison service, starting with reduction of the number of
suspects in remand homes, improved training and working conditions for prison staff; and a
reorientation of the service to correctional activities.

Public Service: An efficient, motivated and well-trained public service will be one of the
major foundations of the vision. Kenya will build a public service that is citizen-focused and
results-oriented, a process whose achievements so far have received international recognition
and awards. The Government will intensify efforts to bring about an attitudinal change in
public service that values transparency and accountability to the citizens of Kenya. Results-
based management and performance contracting will be pegged to the implementation of the
Vision’s goals, making it easier to reward public servants on merit and performance.
Reforms in the public service will further enhance strategic planning in government,
continuous improvement, and stakeholder engagement. A Kenya School of Government will
be established to provide research and training for transformative leadership to the highest
international standards.

Economic Pillar: Moving the Economy up the Value Chain

After a comprehensive analysis of Kenya’s global competitiveness, six key sectors have been
identified to deliver the 10 per cent economic growth rate per annum envisaged under the
economic pillar: tourism; agriculture; manufacturing; wholesale and retail trade; business
process outsourcing (BPO); and financial services.


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Tourism: In the tourism sector, Kenya aims to be one of the top ten long-haul tourist
destinations in the world, offering a high-end, diverse, and distinctive visitor experience.
Specific strategies for realising this aim will include: (i) aggressively developing Kenya’s
coast by establishing resort cities in two key locations; (ii) achieving higher tourist revenue
yield by increasing the quality of service and charges in country’s premium safari parks, and
by improving facilities in all under-utilised parks; (iii) creating new high value niche products
(e.g. cultural, eco-sports and water-based tourism); (iv) attracting high-end international hotel
chains; and (v) investing in new conference facilities to boost business tourism.

Agriculture: Kenya aims to promote an innovative, commercially-oriented, and modern
agricultural sector. This will be accomplished through: (i) transforming key institutions in
agriculture and livestock to promote agricultural growth; (ii) increasing productivity of crops
and livestock; (iii) introducing land use polices for better utilisation of high and medium
potential lands; (iv) developing more irrigable areas in arid and semi-arid lands for both crops
and livestock; and (v) improving market access for our smallholders through better supply
chain management. Vision 2030 aims at adding value to our farm and livestock products
before they reach local and international markets.

Wholesale and retail trade: The 2030 vision for wholesale and retail trade is to raise earnings
by giving our large informal sector opportunities to transform itself into a part of the formal
sector that is efficient, multi-tiered, diversified in product range and innovative. This will be
realised through: (i) training and credit (ii) improving efficiency by reducing the number of
players between the producer and the consumer; (iii) creating formal market outlets for small-
scale operators who will then graduate from the informal sector; (iv) encouraging more
investment in retail trade; (iv) developing an outreach programme to expand retail trade; and
(v) developing training programmes to improve retail skills.

Manufacturing: Kenya aims to have a robust, diversified, and competitive manufacturing
sector. This will be achieved through the implementation of the following strategies: (i)
restructuring key local industries that use local raw materials but are currently uncompetitive
(e.g. sugar and paper manufacturing); (ii) exploiting opportunities in value addition to local
agricultural produce; (iii) adding value to intermediate imports and capturing the “last step”
of value addition (e.g. in metals and plastics).

Business process outsourcing: Kenya aims to become the top off-shoring destination in
Africa. BPO will, therefore, become the sector of choice for employment for youth and
young professionals. The country will move quickly to establish the necessary capacity in the
sector through: (i) attracting at least five major leading information technology (IT) suppliers,
and at least ten large multinational companies and global BPO players to the country; and (ii)
strengthening at least five local players to become local champions through stand-alone
operations or joint ventures;

Financial Services: The 2030 vision for financial services is to create a vibrant and globally
competitive financial sector promoting high-levels of savings and financing for Kenya’s
investment needs. Kenya also intends to become a regional financial services centre. This
will be achieved through: (i) Undertaking legal and institutional reforms to make Kenya more
competitive as a financial centre (ii) reforms in the banking sector that will be undertaken to
facilitate the consolidation of small banks in Kenya to larger and stronger ones; (ii)
introduction of credit referencing in the country; (iii) streamlining informal finance and


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Savings and Credit Co-operative Organisations, as well as micro-finance institutions; (iv)
deepening financial markets by raising institutional capital through pension funds, expanding
bond and equity markets, as well as tapping international sources of capital.

Social Pillar: Investing in the People of Kenya

Kenya’s journey towards prosperity also involves the building of a just and cohesive society
that enjoys equitable social development in a clean and secure environment. This quest is the
basis of transformation in eight key social sectors, namely: Education and Training; Health;
Water and Sanitation; the Environment; Housing and Urbanisation; as well as in Gender,
Youth, Sports and Culture. It also makes special provisions for Kenyans with various
disabilities and previously marginalised communities.

Education and Training: Under education and training, Kenya will provide a globally
competitive and quality education, training and research. Kenya aims to be a regional centre
of research and development in new technologies. This will be achieved through: (i)
integrating early childhood education into primary education; (ii) reforming secondary school
curricula: (iii) modernising teacher training; (iv) strengthening partnerships with the private
sector; (v) developing key programmes for learners with special needs, (vi) rejuvenating
ongoing adult training programmes; (vii) revising the curriculum for university and technical
institutes to include more science and technology; and (viii) in partnership with the private
sector, the Government will also increase funding to enable all these institutions to support
activities envisaged under the economic pillar.

The Health Sector: To improve the overall livelihoods of Kenyans, the country aims to
provide an efficient integrated and high quality affordable health care system. Priority will
be given to prevented care at community and household level, through a decentralized
national health-care system. With devolution of funds and decision-making to district level,
the Ministry headquarters will then concentrate on policy and research issues. With the
support of the private sector, Kenya also intends to become the regional provider of choice
for highly-specialised health care, thus opening Kenya to “health tourism”. Improved access
to health care for all will come through: (i) provision of a robust health infrastructure network
countrywide; (ii) improving the quality of health service delivery to the highest standards (iii)
promotion of partnerships with the private sector; ((iv) providing access to those excluded
from health care for financial or other reasons.

Water and Sanitation: Kenya is a water-scarce country. The economic and social
developments anticipated by Vision 2030 will require more high quality water supplies than
at present. The country, therefore, aims to conserve water sources and enhance ways of
harvesting and using rain and underground water. The 2030 vision for Water and Sanitation
is to ensure that improved water and sanitation are available and accessible to all. This will
be realised through specific strategies, such as: (i) raising the standards of the country’s
overall water, resource management, storage and harvesting capability; (ii) rehabilitating the
hydro-meteorological data gathering network; (iii) constructing multipurpose dams (e.g., on
Nzoia and Nyando); and (iv) constructing water and sanitation facilities to support a growing
urban and industrial population.

The Environment: Kenya aims to be a nation that has a clean, secure and sustainable
environment by 2030. This will be achieved through: (i) promoting environmental
conservation to better support the economic pillar’s aspirations; (ii) improving pollution and


vii


waste management through the application of the right economic incentives; (iii)
commissioning of public-private partnerships (PPPs) for improved efficiency in water and
sanitation delivery; (iv) enhancing disaster preparedness in all disaster-prone areas and
improving the capacity for adaptation to global climatic change.

Housing and Urbanisation: Given the current demographic trends, Kenya will be a
predominantly urban country by 2030. The country must, therefore, plan for high quality
urban livelihoods for most of her people by that date. The 2030 vision for housing and
urbanisation is “an adequately and decently-housed nation in a sustainable environment.”
This will be attained through: (i) better development of and access to affordable and adequate
housing; (ii) enhanced access to adequate finance for developers and buyers; (iii) pursuit of
targeted key reforms to unlock the potential of the housing sector; (iv) initiation of a
nationwide urban planning and development campaign, starting with Kenya’s major cities
and towns.

Gender, Youth and Vulnerable groups: The 2030 vision for gender, youth and vulnerable
groups is gender equity in power and resource distribution, improved livelihoods for all
vulnerable groups, and responsible, globally competitive and prosperous youth. In addition,
Kenya aims to capitalise on her international reputation as an “athletic superpower” by
opening up the country for top global sports events, encouraged by corporate sponsorship.
The Government will provide stricter enforcement of copyright laws in music and the
performance arts, and provide facilities for the most talented musicians and actors. The
country aims to be a competitive destination for global film producers. These aims will be
realised through the implementation of specific strategies such as: (i) increasing the
participation of women in all economic, social and political decision-making processes (e.g.
though higher representation in Parliament); (ii) improving access of all disadvantaged
groups (e.g., business opportunities, health and education services, housing and justice); and
(iii) minimising vulnerabilities through prohibition of retrogressive practices (e.g. female
genital mutilation and child labour) and by upscaling training for people with disabilities and
special needs.

Political Pillar: Moving to the Future as One Nation

The transformation of the country’s political governance system under Vision 2030 will take
place across six strategic areas: rule of law; electoral and political processes; democracy and
public service delivery; transparency and accountability;; and security, peace building and
conflict management.

Rule of Law: Under rule of law, the 2030 Vision is “adherence to the rule of law as applicable
to a modern, market-based economy in a human rights-respecting state”. Specific strategies
will involve: (i) aligning the national policy and legal framework with the needs of a market-
based economy, national human rights, and gender equity commitments; (ii) increasing
access and quality of services available to the public and reducing barriers to justice; (iii)
streamlining the functional capability of legal and judicial institutions to enhance inter-
agency cooperation; and (iv) inculcating a culture of compliance with laws, cultivating
civility and decent human behaviour between Kenyans, and between Kenyans and outsiders. .

Electoral and Political Processes: The 2030 Vision seeks to cultivate “genuinely competitive
and issue-based politics”. Specific strategies will involve: (i) introducing laws and
regulations covering political parties; (ii) enhancing the legal and regulatory framework


viii


covering the electoral process; and (iii) conducting civic education programmes to widen
knowledge and participation among citizens, leading to an informed and active citizenry.

Democracy and Public Service Delivery: The 2030 Vision aims to create “a people-centred
and politically-engaged open society”. Specific strategies will involve: (i) pursuing
constitutional and legal reforms necessary to devolve to move resources and responsibility to
local governance institutions; (ii) encouraging formal and informal civic education and
action programmes; and (iii) promoting open engagement between government and civil
society, as well as the free flow of information (e.g. through better and continuous
engagement with the media).

Transparency and Accountability: Under transparency and accountability, the 2030 Vision is
“transparent, accountable, ethical and results-oriented government institutions”. Specific
strategies will involve: (i) strengthening the legal framework for anti-corruption, ethics and
integrity; (ii) promoting results-based management within the public service; (iii)
encouraging public access to information and data; (iv) introducing civilian oversight around
the key legal, justice and security institutions; and (v) strengthening Parliament’s legislative
oversight capacity.

Security, Peace-Building and Conflict Management: Vision 2030 aims at “security of all
persons and property throughout the Republic”. Specific strategies will involve: (i)
promoting public-private cooperation and civilian/community involvement for improved
safety and security; (ii) deepening policy, legal and institutional reform for improved
enforcement of law and order; (iii) promoting national and inter-community dialogue in order
to build harmony among ethnic, racial and other interest groups; (iv) promoting peace
building and reconciliation to improve conflict management and ensure sustained peace
within the country; and (v) inculcating a culture of respect for the sanctity of human life that
does not resort to the use of violence as an instrument of resolving personal and community
disputes. This should start with the family, schools, the church and all public institutions.


Page 1

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION: MACRO ECONOMIC STRATEGY FOR
LONG -TERM DEVELOPMENT

From ERS to Vision 2030: Overview of Recent Economic Performance

Kenya began to lay a solid foundation upon which to start the journey of building a globally
competitive and prosperous economy in 2003. As a response to past economic and social
challenges, Kenya implemented bold economic and structural reforms as elaborated in the
Economic Recovery Strategy (ERS) covering the 2003-2007 period. The ERS was anchored
on three key pillars:


i. Restoration of economic growth within the context of a stable macroeconomic
environment;

ii. Rehabilitation and expansion of infrastructure
iii. Equity and poverty reduction;
iv. Improving governance.


In addition the ERS policy emphasized the role o equity in its overall socio-economic
agenda. This was to be achieved through adoption of a growth strategy based in sectors that
generated employment most rapidly, and that provide more income generating opportunities
for the poor. The sectors identified included agriculture, tourism, trade and industry, ICT
forestry, and mining. ERS also gave renewed attention to the needs of arid and semi-arid
districts and the need for additional resources to address them.

These four pillars and the strategic policy interventions accompanying them were carefully
selected to pull the economy out of a recession and to commence the journey toward a broad-
based equitable economic recovery underpinned by improved efficiency in public service
delivery.

As the period covered by the ERS comes to an end in December 2007, it is useful to take
stock of the economic and structural achievements over the past 5 years. In all of the three
pillars, significant progress has been registered since Kenya adopted the ERS as a policy
guide to economic recovery and rapid growth in 2003.

A: Pillar I: Growth and Macroeconomic Stability

Arising from the implementation of sound fiscal and monetary policies supported by strong
structural reforms, Kenya’s economy has grown significantly from virtual stagnation in 2002
when it expanded by 0.6% to 6.1% in 2006 and 6.3% in the first quarter of 2007. This was
the first time in two decades for Kenya to record four consecutive years of high economic
growth. The robust economic growth was evident in all sectors of the economy thus;


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Figure 1.1: Economic Growth Rate, 2002 - 2007

0.6

3.0

4.9

5.7
6.1 6.3

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007Q1

Chart 1: Kenyan economy has expanded from virtual stagnation in
2002 when it expanded by 0.6% to a high and sustainable rate of 6.1%

in 2006 and 6.3% in first quarter of 2007


• The agriculture sector growth improved markedly from negative 3% in 2002 to a
positive 5.4% in 2006. Similarly, the manufacturing sector expanded by 6.9% in
2006, up from 0.1% in 2002;


• The hotel and restaurant sector recovered strongly from a decline of 20.3% in 2003 to

a growth of 14.9% in 2006, with an annual growth rate of 37% in hotel occupancy.
The transport and communication sector experienced a strong growth from 3.5% in
2003 to 10.8% in 2006;


• The wholesale and retail trade sector rose from negative 2.5% in 2002 to 10.9% in

2006; and with the lower interest rates and increased remittances from Kenyans in the
Diaspora, construction has picked up substantially from negative growth of 2% in
2002 to 6.3% in 2006;


• Exports have almost doubled since 2002 driven by strong growth in coffee, tea and

horticultural exports. The improved exports, higher tourism receipts and remittances,
and increased capital inflows have resulted in more than a doubling of international
reserves held by the Central Bank since 2002, from USD1.2 billion in 2002 to
USD.2.75 billion in 2006.


• The financial services sector has strengthened. After recording a negative growth rate

in 2002, the sector grew by 6.5 percent in 2006 with all sub-sector performing
strongly:


• Annual bank credit rose from minus 1.7% of GDP in 2001 to about 7% of

GDP in 2006 with new credit supporting the expansion of economic growth
particularly in the productive sectors of the economy such as agriculture and
tourism.

• Access to financial services has increased and, importantly, the micro-
financial institutions have expanded their activities in the recent past and now
account for a sizeable part of the overall financial sector.


Page 3

• The Insurance industry has expanded strongly over the recent past, recording
gross premiums of approximately Ksh 42 billion in 2006, translating to a
growth of approximately 16% over the previous year.

• In the pensions sector, the number of occupational schemes have increased
from 128 by end-2002 to about 800 by end 2006 with total assets invested
rising from KShs.133 billion in 2004 to KShs.220 billion or 16% of GDP.

• Reflecting confidence in the economy, the NSE Index has increased by 314%,
reflecting an increase in market capitalization from KShs.112 billion in 2002
to KSh.792 billion in 2006;


Fiscal Developments

With regard to fiscal policy, since 2003, Kenya has demonstrated tremendous improvement
in revenue generation. Between 2003 and 2004 alone, revenue collection rose sharply by
about 2 percentage points of GDP as a result of improvements in administration and
governance. Since then, despite a reduction in the VAT rate from 18 percent to 16 percent
and lower EAC customs duties following the implementation of the EAC common external
tariff (CET), revenue collection has been kept more or less at 21 percent of GDP, save for FY
2005/06 when teething problems associated with computerization of customs services
resulted in lower import duties and VAT on imports. With strong revenue effort, expenditure
kept within target while shifting resources allocation to priority development areas of
agriculture and rural development, infrastructure, education and health, net domestic
borrowing has been largely contained, falling from 3.6 percent of GDP in FY 2002/03 to 1.8
percent of GDP in FY 2006/07.

Monetary Policy, Inflation and Exchange Rate

Monetary policy has been targeted at containing inflation pressures, so as to ensure a stable
macroeconomic environment which is necessary to encourage private sector investment. The
underlying rate of inflation has generally been within the 5 percent target. The overall rate of
inflation has been volatile due to the increases in food and fuel prices occasioned by dry
spells and movement in world oil prices. Reflecting prudent fiscal policy, lower inflationary
expectation and increased competition among banks, commercial banks’ lending rates have
declined significantly from over 18 percent in 2002 to about 12-13 percent in 2006. The
Kenya shilling exchange rate against the dollar has appreciated due to strong balance of
payments position, as well as a weakening of the U.S. dollar against major international
currencies.

B: Pillar II: Rehabilitation and Expansion of infrastructure

The ERS identified poor infrastructure as a major obstacle in the country’s economic
recovery programme. An efficient, modern infrastructure was seen as one of the most critical
factors to lowering the costs of doing business and opening up income-generating
opportunities for poor households. The ERS aimed at an expanded and well maintained
national road network, improved safety in urban and rural public transport, wider access to
improved water and sanitation facilities, reliable and affordable energy. In addition, ERS
aimed at providing Kenyans with an efficient telecommunications and a competitive ICT
sector. To increase efficiency in this sector, the ERS aimed at increasing private sector


Page 4

participation in investment under a new regulatory framework. To rationalise the institutional
framework of road construction and maintenance, the Government has created three new
authorities to manage rural, urban and national roads respectively. In addition, a regulatory
framework for enforcing road construction standards, axle loads and road safety has been put
in place. A national inventory of all Kenya’s roads and their condition is in progress to guide
future road construction. With the support of her international development partners, the
country’s road network has undergone considerable rehabilitation and expansion since 2003.
The most important of these projects is the “Northern Corridor” linking the Mombasa,
Nairobi and Malaba corridor to Uganda and the Great Lakes region. The length of
international and national trunk roads under bitumen standards rose by about 10 per cent
between 2002 and 2006. In November 2006, the government of Kenya and Uganda
concessioned the running of their railways to Rift Valley Railways for 25years with the goal
of making export, import and domestic freight-handling more efficient. ERS goals for water
and electricity coverage have largely been met.

C: Pillar III: Equity and Poverty Reduction

In order to ensure that the growth is shared amongst all Kenyans, a number of targeted fiscal
interventions, structural reforms and regional development initiatives have been implemented
since 2003 to reduce poverty and inequality in Kenya. Among these anti-poverty and
inequality interventions implemented include:


• Introduction of Universal Free Primary Education, which has increased enrolment by
over 1.5 million pupils since 2003, thereby assuring them of a secured future and
relieving their parents of school fees burden.


• Increase in the share of resources allocated towards priority development areas of

agriculture and rural development, provision of infrastructure and human
development, including core poverty programs to accelerate development and reduce
inequality;


• Various structural reforms in the agriculture sector, including the dairy, sugar, coffee,

tea, pyrethrum, and the co-operative sectors to improve productivity and income
earnings;


• Improvement in public sector efficiency and effectiveness, including by removing

administrative barriers to trade, privatizing and restructuring of key public entities,
and streamlining of licences in order to reduce cost of doing business to make Kenya
competitive;


• Increase in resources targeted at promoting regional development and reducing

poverty in rural and urban areas. For instance, Constituency Development Fund
allocation increased more than eight-fold from KShs.1.2 billion in 2003/04 to
KShs.10.0 billion in 2007/08, while LATF has more than tripled from KShs.3.0
billion in 2002/03 to Kshs.9.2 billion in 2007/08; and


• Construction of more than 1,000 dispensaries and deployed personnel and medical

supplies to make these facilities operational and improve access to medical care.


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Reflecting the impact of recent strong and broad-based economic expansion on welfare, per
capita income has increased strongly from USD.408 in 2002 to over USD.630 in 2006, an
increase of 55 percent in just four years. In addition, the implementation of various anti-
poverty interventions has subsequently resulted in a decline in overall incidence of poverty
from 56.8 percent in 2000 to 46 percent in 2006, a remarkable reduction of about 20 percent.

D: Pillar IV: Improving Governance

A number of governance reforms have been implemented since 2003 mainly to: (i) reduce
corruption, improve efficiency and ensure effective service delivery in public sector; and (ii)
create enabling environment for increased private sector participation in growth and poverty
reduction. In particular, several reform measures aimed at deepening improvement of
governance in the areas of prevention, investigation and prosecution have been implemented.
These include:


• Introduction of several legislative platforms in the areas of fighting corruption, public
ethics, public financial management, public procurement and oversight on public
finances and making accessible fiscal information to enhance transparency;


• Enforcement of administrative actions to reduce corruption in public sector, including

conducting anti-corruption awareness, introduction of performance contracts and
reducing administrative barriers to trade;


• Strengthened corruption investigative and prosecutorial capacity; and


• Privatization and /or restructuring of state owned enterprises to enhance

accountability and efficiency.

1.1 Challenges and Opportunities: Vision 2030

With the benefit of these historic achievements, Kenya needs to accelerate her development
from a low to middle-income country, in an increasingly competitive global environment.

A: Global and Regional Operating Environment

In the past two decades the world has witnessed rapid economic growth and expansion of
trade driven primarily by developed countries. These trends are expected to continue in the
2007 - 2030 period. The world population is expected to rise to 8.5 billion from an estimated
6.5 billion currently, with a commensurate increase in the labour force. From a demand side,
the growing world population and economy means a widening of the potential market for
Kenyan products beyond the traditional developed country markets. However, other global
economic trends including the growth of out sourcing, environmental concerns and increased
demand for raw materials means that countries like Kenya are likely to face, greater
competition in previously non tradeable service sectors, higher quality standards in export
markets and higher import prices for their raw materials. Hence, even as the country attempts
to exploit the opportunities availed by the growing world trade, it will need to scale up it
productivity and quality control regimes to remain relevant.


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Kenya’s external environment will be significantly influenced by the changing international
and regional trading arrangement. In particular, the multilateral trading arrangements under
the WTO and the regional trading arrangement under the Economic Partnership Agreement
(EPA) between the Eastern and Southern African (ESA) countries and the European Union
(EU) will be critical determinants of the opportunities for export led development as well as
the potential for adopting certain economic strategies. Both the Common Market for Eastern
and Southern Africa (COMESA) and the East African Community (EAC) will increasingly
become important markets for Kenya’s exports, especially of manufactured goods.

The liberalization of global trade that has taken place under the multilateral trading
framework has been a major reason for the rapid expansion in world trade. Currently, the
multilateral trading arrangements are under review under the auspices of the World Trade
Organization (WTO) Doha round. Whether the Doha round benefits non LDC countries such
as Kenya will depend on the final design of the ‘development package’, and in particular, the
need for full preferential tariff treatment; limitations of developed countries exclusions of
sensitive areas of interest to Kenya; and increased Aid-for-Trade to enable Kenya enhance its
competitiveness and take advantage of emerging export opportunities.

Along with other ACP countries Kenya will be entering a WTO compatible EPA with the
European Union (EU). The timing of the tariff reductions are already largely agreed and
imply that EU producers of raw materials, capital equipment and final manufactured goods
will increasingly access the Kenyan market duty and quota free. This reality will place limits
on the extent to which Kenya can pursue protectionist policies to promote industrial
development and makes an export oriented development strategy an imperative. In addition,
with tariff revenues to be forgone on EU imports, the EPA will also limit the extent to which
Kenya can rely on trade related taxes for budgetary purposes.

B: Internal Challenges and Opportunities

Whereas Kenya has been able to scale up economic growth to 6.1% per annum in 2006, it is
recognized that further up scaling to 10% per annum will be a major challenge. Few
countries, other than those endowed with substantial natural resources, have been able to
scale up growth to 10% and to sustain for a long period. As a country committed to an
export-led private sector-driven growth strategy, Kenya must bear in mind several challenges
it is likely to face in raising its growth rate to 10% level. These challenges include:


• Ensuring continued macroeconomic stability;


• Minimizing institutional risks especially related to corruption and security;


• Scaling up the quantity and quality of infrastructure especially the condition of roads,
access to and reliability of water, cost of electricity and the quality of port and rail
services;


• Promoting efficiency challenges by reversing the declining trend and raising the Total

Factor Productivity (TFP) to a minimum growth level of 2.5% needed to achieve the


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vision targets through adoption of new technological, improvement in governance
and reducing transaction costs to business; and


• Raising the level of investments from the current estimate of 20% of GDP to above

30% of GDP consistent with the levels of growth the country aspires to.

The macroeconomic challenges of shifting Kenya from a long term growth path of below 4%
per annum to over 10% are significant. It is, therefore, important that Kenya adopts and
follows through on a robust strategy that tackles the challenges enumerated above. This is the
basis of the macroeconomic strategy outlined in the rest of this chapter.

1.2 Macroeconomic Framework for Vision 2030

The foundation upon which to build a prosperous Kenya with expanded economic
opportunity is firmly in place after the successful implementation of various economic and
structural reforms under ERS. In going forward, Vision 2030 will build on the successes
under ERS with a pursuit of a macroeconomic framework that will facilitate low and stable
inflation and interest rates, a sustainable public sector debt position, and a competitive real
exchange rate to support an export-led economic growth and help to deliver high and
sustainable levels of growth, employment and poverty reduction.

Economic Growth

The growth objectives underpinning the Vision 2030 require the rate of growth of the
economy to rise from 6.1% achieved in 2006 to 10% by 2012/13 and to sustain that growth
thereafter.. Such a growth will shift Kenya from the rank of the low-income countries to well
within the ranks of the middle-income countries. Achieving these growth targets will require:
continued implementation of prudent fiscal, monetary and exchange rate policies; enhanced
effort to raise the level of investments and savings, and accelerating structural reforms in
order to increase the efficiency of both physical and human capital and raise total factor
productivity.

Fiscal Framework

Macroeconomic stability, and the role of fiscal dispensation in sustaining it, is critical for
private sector development and growth. The Government will ensure that the bulk of
expenditures are met from tax revenue and that overall expenditure is controlled to ensure
that the overall government deficit is sustainable and does not lead to a crowding out of
private sector investments. Key elements of the fiscal strategy will include the following:


i. Maintaining a strong revenue effort: Revenues are targeted to rise from 20.7% of
GDP in 2006/07 to 22% by 2015 and remain at that level to 2030. This will be
achieved despite the reduction in the scope for raising taxes from duties as a result of
the ongoing COMESA and EAC trade liberalization and the coming into force during
this period of the ESA-EU EPA. The Government will also ensure judicious use of
incentives to avoid “a race to the bottom” with our EAC partners and to protect the
revenue base;


Page 8

ii. Maintaining the overall fiscal deficit at less than 5%of GDP consistent with the need
to sustain Kenya’s debt sustainability position, and ensure that the growth of domestic
debt will be maintained at a level that allows for expansion of credit to the private
sector commensurate with the need for investment trade and private sector
development;


iii. Containing growth of total expenditures, while creating fiscal space through
expenditure rationalization to shift resources from non-priority to priority areas,
including expenditures on the flagship projects critical to achieving Vision 2030. In
this context, the wage bill is expected to decline gradually to 6% suggesting the need
for civil service reform that would facilitate higher remuneration for a smaller and
more efficient civil service. The increasing requirements for operation and
maintenance for the expanded infrastructure have been catered for;


iv. Increasing the share of development expenditures in total outlays will be increased
from 18% in 2006/07 to 35% by 2012/13 and thereafter, in line with requirements of
Vision 2030. Most of the increase in development expenditure will continue to
benefit the priority sectors, such as the infrastructure and agriculture sectors, and
social sectors such as health and education, will pay an important role towards the
realisation of Vision 2030. As a country we will, therefore, need to scale-up resources
towards these sectors, while ensuring efficiency and effectiveness in their use and
management;


v. Building capacity for efficiency, effectiveness and accountability in budgetary
process, as part of expenditure reforms, among other things: (i) effectively formulate
appropriate budgetary policies; (ii) develop and enforce a result-oriented budget
management underpinned by clear performance benchmarks and a wide array of
input/output indicators; (iii) improve efficiency in public procurement and
expenditure management, restructuring of state influenced enterprises, and improving
fiscal governance; and (iv) create fiscal space by reducing unproductive expenditures
in order to provide adequate funding for priority Vision 2030 development projects;


vi. Progressively reducing recourse to concessional funding, Kenya graduates from a
low-income to lower middle-income and then upper middle-income country. The
country will therefore increasingly rely on access to international financial markets
for its financing needs as well as on non-debt creating foreign direct investments


Monetary policy

Maintaining low and stable inflation is critical for long-term economic and social prosperity.
High and variable inflation leads to inefficient allocation of resources and makes planning for
the future much more difficult. Costs are also incurred as people seek to protect themselves
from the effects of inflation rather than concentrating on the creation of new wealth. This
damages productivity and growth. Moreover, high and variable inflation involves social costs
that are likely to fall particularly hard on those people on lower incomes.

Therefore, to avoid the adverse effects of high inflation, the monetary policy to be pursued
will aim at maintaining a low rate of inflation of below 5 percent. The Central Bank of


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Kenya’s pursuit of a monetary policy stance consistent with this inflation target and the
envisaged growth makes the best possible contribution to achieving high and stable levels of
growth and employment and poverty reduction. The maintenance of low inflation and stable
positive real interest rates is expected to facilitate adequate expansion of credit to the private
sector to support the envisaged economic activities. Concomitantly, the financial sector will
be reformed with a view to enhance efficiency, access and stability of the financial systems
in order to make Kenya a regional financial hub.

Exchange Rate Policy

Kenya will continue to maintain a flexible exchange rate system that facilitates the
economy’s competitiveness in line with an export-led private sector-driven growth strategy.
The market-determined exchange rate policy pursued by the Government has served Kenya
well in terms of providing a cushion to external shocks and in maintaining external
competitiveness. To ensure that external competitiveness is maintained as Kenya becomes a
more open economy, the Government will continue to monitor closely developments in the
real exchange rate, and will continue to take actions to enhancing productivity.

Investment and Savings

To achieve the Vision 2030 growth objectives, the level of investment is expected to rise to
31.3% of GDP by 2012/2013, i.e., by about 10 percentage points, and then remain above
32% for the 2014-2030 period. Of critical importance will be the required public investment,
which will need to rise from 4.3% of GDP achieved in 2006/07 to 9.8% by 2012/2013 and
remain above 9% thereafter. This will be achieved by maintaining a strong revenue position,
restructuring outlays toward development expenditures, increased project financing from
development partners, and judicious recourse to domestic and foreign borrowing to build
infrastructure.

The challenge of increasing public investment will be matched by an equivalent challenge of
increasing private sector investment. Private sector investments are expected to rise from
15.6% of GDP in 2006/07 to 22.9% in 2012/13, and to over 24% of GDP during the period
2020/21 to 2030. Owing to the improvement in the investment climate and continued good
economic performance, we expect foreign direct investment to comprise a significant share
of this increase. Achieving this level of private investment will require interventions on
several fronts including:


• Restoration and expansion of the infrastructure stock;
• Upgrading financial services to world class levels;
• Strengthening of capital markets;
• Improving the regulatory and licensing framework to reduce bureaucratic costs;
• Strengthening the judiciary;
• Corruption control;
• Ensuring labour markets operate flexibly enough to reflect the true cost of labour; and
• Ensuring human resource quality is upgraded to enable human capital to play a larger

role in raising productivity.


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These interventions must be underpinned by macroeconomic stability, assurance of the rule
of law and protection of property rights including intellectual property rights. To ensure that
Kenya does not become overly dependent on foreign financing for its future development, it
will be imperative to ensure the bulk of the investment effort is domestically funded. To fund
the investment programme, gross national savings will need to rise from 15.6% of GDP in
2006/07 to about 26% by 2012/13 and to 29% of GDP by 2030. This means that the use of
external savings will be limited to 4% of GDP in 2006/07 and to 6.5% of GDP in 2012/13
before declining thereafter to a sustainable level of 3% of GDP. The path of external savings
reflects the frontloading of public sector development spending with a high import
component as well as the expected increase in foreign direct investment.

While public savings are expected to rise from 1.6% of GDP in 2006/07 to about 3% by
2012/13 and to 3.8% by 2030, the bulk of the increased savings will come from the private
sector. Private savings are targeted to rise from [14%] of GDP in 2007/08 to 23% in 2012/13
and to 25.5% of GDP in 2030. To achieve the required level of national savings, significant
reforms will be undertaken in the financial sector in order to increase mobilization of
resources. Key elements of the financial sector strategy include building a stronger industry
structure and deeper penetration of banking services through the following measures:


o Creating incentives for consolidation and mergers amongst small banks and
laying a platform for modern technology and critical mass of competency
required to provide modern and efficient banking services to Kenyans.


o Extending credit referencing system from simply negative information (e.g

information on defaulters) system to a positive information system (e.g
information on credit worthiness), to increase competition and efficiency
(reducing non-performing loans) whilst effectively protecting consumer
information and rights.


o Deepening penetration of banking services, especially to rural areas to help

drive increased domestic savings. The Government will play a facilitating role
in this area to enable the private sector players reach the unbanked but
bankable population, especially with the oversight of MFIs by CBK.


o Implementing strategies for streamlining the insurance sector including creating a

competitive environment which leads to brand activities, increased investment and better
public awareness of the benefits of insurance; attracting capital infusion into the industry
for enhanced premium growth and profitability; achieving the necessary economies of
scale that will make insurance affordable and accessible; and increasing retention
capacity so as to minimise possible outflows arising from low local underwriting
capacity.


o Developing a comprehensive pension programme tied to Kenya’s investment needs and
improved benefits for pensioners. The capital markets will play a critical role in the
mobilisation of resources for equity finance and for issuance of long-term bonds,
including those for funding infrastructure. Therefore, the legal and regulatory framework
will continue to be strengthened in order to enhance confidence and credibility of the
capital market.


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External Financing

With both public and private sector investment picking up, and imports rising strongly in line
with projected economic growth, meeting the projected external financing requirements is
expected to be manageable throughout the Vision period. Total donor support is expected to
rise steadily to about 4% of GDP by 2012/13 and remain above that level through 2030, as
the Government improves the absorption capacity of these funds. It is also expected that
donor support will increase significantly under the recently launched Kenya Joint Assistance
Strategy (KJAS) signed by the Government and Kenya’s international development partners.
A significant amount of external financing is also expected to come from direct foreign
investment and commercial borrowing, due to Kenya’s favourable sovereign credit rating.
The introduction of a benchmark sovereign bond is expected to accelerate international
private investment into the economy. Although budgetary support has not been factored in
Vision 2030, it is expected that additional external resources will become available following
the implementation of the wide range of reforms and improved governance. In such a case,
the additional resources will be used to scale up programmes in the priority sectors, including
MDG related interventions and flagship projects identified under Vision 2030.

Structural reforms
Maintaining macroeconomic stability is in itself necessary but not sufficient to achieve the
desired growth under Vision 2030. Improving efficiency and increasing total factor
productivity (TFP) is also critical to achieving the Vision 2030 growth targets. Therefore, the
Government will continue undertaking structural reforms in various fronts with the aim of
improving the efficiency in the allocation and utilization of resources as well as effective
public sector service delivery. Priority areas include:

Governance: Deepening governance and anti-corruption reforms in the broad areas
of: (i) prevention; (ii) investigation and recovery of corruptly acquired assets; (iii)
strengthening the prosecutorial capacity; and (iv) improving governance in priority
sectors;

Public Expenditure and Financial Management Reforms: Accelerating reforms in
public financial management in order to improve efficiency, enhance transparency and
accountability under a coordinated strategy to revitalize Public Finance Management
(PFM);

Procurement Reforms: Enhance effectiveness of the Public Procurement Oversight
Authority (PPOA) in order to improve efficiency in public procurement and create
fiscal space to allow for shifting resources to priority Vision 2030 development
projects;

Financial Sector Reforms: Kenya will implement a comprehensive financial sector
reform strategy aimed at enhancing access, efficiency and stability in order to facilitate
private sector development;

Privatization: Enhancing effectiveness of the Privatization Commission to oversee
implementation of privatization strategy aimed at promoting accountability and
efficiency and opening opportunities for private sector investment and new technology
in the public enterprises; and


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Private Sector Competitiveness: Building on recent achievements in business
regulatory reforms in which Kenya was ranked amongst the top 10 performing
countries in the world, Kenya will undertake additional measures to improve the
investment climate and will also implement the comprehensive private sector
development strategy.


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CHAPTER 2: FOUNDATIONS FOR SOCIO-ECONOMIC TRANSFORMATION


To realise the socio-economic transformation, the Vision will require that the three pillars be
firmly anchored on six foundations: infrastructure; science, technology and innovation; land
reform; human resource development; security; and public service reform. These foundations
will be developed to support the Vision and the country’s overall development process.

2.1 Infrastructure

The vision of the infrastructure section is “to provide cost-effective world-class infrastructure
facilities and services in support of Vision 2030”.

Poor infrastructure was identified under ERS as a major constraint to doing business. It was
repeatedly cited as a necessity to improving the livelihoods of people in consultation held in
farming and pastoral districts. Infrastructure is also important in improving our security.
Successful transition to Vision 2030 calls for a considerable shift in the manner in which
Kenya deploys her resources to acquire the necessary capacity and access to infrastructure
services (transport, telecommunications, energy, water, sewerage and sanitation and
meteorological services) by firms and citizens in their wealth-creation efforts.

While significant gains in infrastructure development have been realised over the last 5 years,
Kenya’s global competitiveness is still weak, especially in the following areas:
• Energy cost in Kenya is US$0.150 per KWh. This compares poorly with Mexico

(US$0.075), Taiwan and China (US$0.070), Colombia (US$0.064) and South Africa
(US$0.040);

• Due to over-reliance on hydroelectricity, the frequency of power outages is high (33 per
cent compared with the average for Mexico, China and South Africa, which stands at 1
per cent). Production lost due to these outages is approximately ~9.3% (compared with
the average for Mexico, China and South Africa, which stands at 1.8 per cent). Also, it
takes approximately 66 days to obtain electricity connection in Kenya (compared with an
average of 18 days in Mexico, China and South Africa);

• Telecommunications costs in Kenya are US$15,000 per month for a 2Mbps international
leased line. This situation compares unfavourably with key BPO destinations e.g. India
(US$4,800), the Philippines (US$4,400), Poland (US$ 2,000) and Morocco (US$7,000);

• Total water availability in Kenya is currently about ~937 m3/capita, which is far below
the average for Africa (~4,500 m3/capita)

• System losses – Unaccounted-for-water losses average 60 per cent while electricity
transmission losses average 18.5 per cent;

• The cost of a poor urban transport system in Nairobi is estimated to be 2 per cent of GDP.

Goals for 2012
A number of broad goals will be pursued to deal with these problems. These include:
• Accelerating ongoing infrastructure development, focusing on quality, aesthetics and

functionality of the infrastructure services developed ;
• Building infrastructure development to support identified flagship projects to ensure

contribution to the economic growth and social equity goals;


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• Improving efficiency and effectiveness of the infrastructure development process at all
levels planning, contracting, and construction;

• Providing a utility sector (water, sewerage and electricity) that is modern, customer-
oriented and technologically-enabled to provide efficient, cost-effective, quality services
to all citizens;

• Creating an inter-connected, technologically-advanced society with modern information
and communication systems driving innovation, growth and social progress;

• Protecting the environment as a national asset and conserving it for the benefit of future
generations and the wider international community; and

• Cultivating a social attitude of respect and care for public infrastructure facilities and
services amongst all citizens.


Strategies

A number of strategies will be critical in the effort to improve the infrastructure services
available and to maximise the economic and social impact of infrastructure development and
management. The strategies to be pursued include the following:
• Strengthening the institutional framework for infrastructure development and accelerating

the speed of completion. Raising efficiency and quality of infrastructure projects, and
increasing the pace of implementation of infrastructure projects so that they are
completed in specified time frames;

• Enhancing local content (materials and services) of identified infrastructure projects i.e
minimising import content;

• Developing and maintaining an integrated, safe and efficient transport network;
• Supporting the development of infrastructure initiatives around flagship projects;
• Benchmarking infrastructure facilities and services provision with globally acceptable

performance standards targeting enhanced customer satisfaction;
• Integrating information and communication technologies in the processes of

infrastructure services provision;
• Implementing infrastructure projects that will stimulate demand in hitherto neglected

areas targeting increased connectivity and reduced transport and other infrastructure
costs;

• Developing a national spatial plan to optimise the development and utilisation of
infrastructure facilities and services;

• Modernising and expanding sea port facilities;
• Identifying, developing and retaining the requisite human resources to support the

infrastructure facilities and services; and
• Enhancing private sector participation in the provision of infrastructure facilities and

services strategically complemented by public sector interventions.

Flagship projects

The above-mentioned strategies will be implemented through selected flagship projects in
transport, energy, ICT, construction, water and sanitation, and sound environmental
management. (Water and the environment are dealt with in the social pillar). In order to
achieve an integrated infrastructure a planning framework capable of addressing specific


Page 15

requirements of the Vision, flagship projects will be implemented to complement the core
Vision 2030’s priorities and growth in the rest of the economy.

The First National Spatial Plan: The need for a national spatial plan is recommended under
agriculture, manufacturing, urbanisation, and environmental management, which are priority
sectors under Vision 2030. In 2008, work will commence on the preparation of the First
National Spatial Plan for Kenya to guide physical development activities over the next 50
years. It will provide a spatial illustration of all national projects and it will also identify a
strategy for land development. The Plan will address issues such as settlement, environment,
transport and economic development. This National Spatial Plan will form the basis upon
which development activities in support of Vision 2030 will take place. Therefore, its
development will require extensive consultation between the relevant stakeholders, Ministry
of Planning and National Development, the Ministry of Lands, other Ministries and state
agencies with a view to incorporating their long-term plans within the national spatial
context.

A 50-year Integrated National Transport Master Plan: This project is to be completed within
two years of initiation and must be linked to the National Spatial Plan. It will be aimed at
ensuring that investment and location of transport infrastructure and services are consistent
with other public policies. Also, it will ensure optimal transport infrastructure investment to
position Kenya as the most efficient and effective transport hub of the East and Central
African region and promote national aspirations for socio-economic reconstruction and
development. It will also facilitate improvement and expansion of transport infrastructure in
a manner that will reduce transport costs and also open new frontiers for economic
development. The policy will provide the Government and the private sector with a
systematic decision-making tool for investment in transport infrastructure over the next 50
years. This programme will have as an integral component of institutional capacity building
to manage roads, ports and air, sea and land transport systems with a view to improving
efficiency and effectiveness of service delivery and enhancing revenue- earning capabilities.
The agencies involved in the delivery of transport services will be adequately equipped to
deliver quality services through modernisation of their operations, strengthening of their
management capability and the introduction of performance-based assessments and
competency systems.

Dredging and /deepening of Mombasa Port: The dredging of the port to deepen the channel
to 14.5 metres will enable larger post-Panamax vessels to access the port and thereby remove
the risk of the port slowly evolving into a feeder facility which larger vessels have no access.

Nairobi metropolitan region bus rapid transit/Systeme: The Government has laid the plans
for the development of a rapid bus transport system starting with the following three
transport corridors:
• Athi River Town to Kikuyu Town (approximately 38 kms);
• Thika Town to the Central Business District (approximately 50 kms); and
• Jomo Kenyatta International Airport to the Central Business District (approximately 25

kms).

The Nairobi metropolitan region bus rapid transit is expected to be operational on four years
time.


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Development of light rail for Nairobi and its suburbs: The area expected to be served by the
light rail stretches from Nairobi Railway Station, situated in the Central Business District, to
Embakasi/Jomo Kenyatta International Airport, a distance of 15.6 kilometers, and borders the
heavily populated industrial area, Makongeni, Makadara, Buru Buru, Donholm and Pipeline,
Jogoo Road, Outer Ring Road, Airport Roads, Mombasa Road, the Airport Siding and the
Nairobi-Makadara. It is projected that the new light rail services will serve at least 150,000
daily passengers, which is 5 per cent of the future public transport demand in the Nairobi
metropolitan area.

Development of a new transport corridor to Southern Sudan and Ethiopia: This corridor will
link Lamu, Kenya’s North Eastern province, Ethiopia and Southern Sudan: The project
involves the development of a new transport corridor from the new port at Lamu through
Garrisa, Isiolo, Mararal, Lodwar, and Lokichogio to branch at Isiolo to Ethiopia and
Southern Sudan. This which will comprise a new road network, railway line, oil refinery at
Lamu, oil pipeline, Lamu Airport and free port at Lamu (Manda Bay) in addition to resort
cities at the coast and in Isiolo. In addition to raising the scope for this region’s tourism,
agriculture and industrial potential, the project will open up access to Southern Sudan, which
has huge unexploited natural resources, including oil.

National road safety programme: The objective of this programme shall be to fast-track
implementation of the National Road Safety Action Plan to achieve the targets of reducing
the incidence of road crashes and its impact on the Kenyan Economy.

Computerised information maintenance management systems programme: This will develop
three integrated computerised systems to manage our roads, bridges and pavements. The
Road Maintenance Management System will be used to monitor the condition of roads, and
manage road maintenance works. The Bridge Maintenance Management System will be
used to monitor the condition of bridges on the main roads network and manage maintenance
works on those bridges. The Pavement Maintenance Management System will be used for
the short- and long-term planning of road resurfacing and rehabilitation works.

Rehabilitation and maintenance of airstrips and airport expansion and modernisation: This
will involve rehabilitation and expansion of airstrips and airports serving tourist and
commercial sites in the country.

Meteorological systems modernisation programme: The objective of this programme is to
improve Kenya’s disaster preparedness and mitigation and promote public education and
awareness among vulnerable communities and decision makers. The programme will involve
three components, as follows:
• Tsunami early warning systems;
• Tidal gauge station, marine automatic weather systems and seismic systems; and
• Introduction of dynamic modelling capabilities for prediction of weather and climate.

Weather Modification Programme: This is an integrated programme with six components, as
follows:
• Establishment of cloud chamber laboratory for rainfall enhancement;


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• Hailstone suppression – The objective of this programme component is to suppress hail
over the Kericho-Nandi hills area to prevent damage to tea plantations;

• Snow pack augmentation on Mt. Kenya research – This programme component is
expected to increase glaciers over the mountain to ensure perennial flow of streams from
the catchments;

• Enhancement of air quality measurement for environmental impact assessment and
pollution management;

• Enhancement of flash flood forecasting using doppler weather surveillance technology;
and

• Enhancement of research to suppress fog and frost on the high-ground areas of Kenya.

Nairobi city integrated close circuit television system: This will be a system designed to
provide 24-hour close circuit television surveillance of the City of Nairobi. It will be
integrated into the Nairobi Metropolitan Region’s Intelligent Transport Information System.
The first phase will cover the City of Nairobi and will eventually be extended to cover the
business districts of the Nairobi Metropolitan Region and key intersections and other and
other urban areas.

Construction industry development policy: In order to enhance the performance of the
construction industry as the premier agent for the development and management of
infrastructure facilities and services, a Comprehensive Construction Industry Development
Policy to be implemented through a dedicated Construction Industry Development Board
will be formulated within 12 months and thereafter consistently implemented. One of its
objectives will be to strengthen the capacity of Kenya’s construction industry.

Public facilities improvement programme: This programme will target the improvement of
the visual appeal and functionality of all public facilities and buildings. In this regard,
maintenance and management of public facilities will be enhanced through comprehensive
facility management approaches. Citizens will be encouraged to value and respect public
facilities through a series of public education and awareness programmes aimed at
engendering a sense of civic responsibility and foster nation-building attitudes among all
citizens. This programme will be supported by dedicated Computerised Facilities
Management Information Systems.

2.2 Energy as a Foundation of Vision 2030

Energy is one of the infrastructural enablers of the three “pillars” of Vision 2030. The level
and intensity of commercial energy use in a country is a key indicator of the degree of
economic growth and development. Kenya is therefore expected to use more energy in the
commercial sector on the road to 2030. As incomes increase and urbanization intensifies,
household demand for energy will also rise. Preparations have been made to meet this
growth in demand for energy under the Vision.

Commercial energy in Kenya is dominated by petroleum and electricity as the prime movers
of the modern sector of the economy, while wood fuel provides energy needs of the
traditional sector including rural communities and the urban poor. At the national level, wood
fuel and other biomass account for about 68% of the total primary energy consumption,
followed by petroleum at 22%, electricity at 9% and others including coal at about less than


Page 18

1%. Solar energy is also extensively used for drying and, to some extent, for heating and
lighting. Electricity remains the most sought after energy source by Kenya society and access
to electricity is normally associated with rising or high quality of life. However, its
consumption in Kenya is extremely low at 121 kilowatt hours (khw) per capita (compared to
503khw in Vietnam or 4,595khw for South Africa) and national access rate at about 15%.
The access rate in the rural areas is estimated at 4%. All that is changing rapidly as the
country invests more resources in power generation, in addition to policy and institutional
reforms in the sector, bring in new providers.

The current sources of electrical power generation are hydro 3,025 Gwh (51.2%), thermal oil
1,819 Gwh (30.8%), geothermal 1,046 Gwh (17.7%), cogeneration 6 Gwh (0.09%), wind 0.3
Gwh (0.01%) and imports 11 Gwh (0.2%). Petroleum fuels are imported in form of crude oil
for domestic processing and also as refined products, and are mainly used in the transport,
commercial and industrial sectors. The domestic consumption of petroleum products are as
follows: light diesel oil 1,035,600 tonnes (34.1%), fuel oil 664,600 tonnes (21.9%), aviation
spirit and jet fuel 595,300 tonnes (19.6%), motor spirit 358,200 tonnes (11.8%), illuminating
kerosene 279,200 tonnes (9.2%), liquefied petroleum gas 64,600 tonnes (2.1%) and heavy
diesel oil 40,700 tonnes (1.3%).

Coal is mainly used in the industrial sector, particularly in the cement industry for process
heat. Coal utilization has remained low in Kenya despite international prices having been
reasonable and fairly stable over the years relative to petroleum.

2.3 Challenges

The challenges facing the power sub-sector include a weak power transmission and
distribution infrastructure, high cost of power, low per capita power consumption and low
countrywide electricity access. The petroleum industry is constrained by limited supply
facilities for fuels including LPG, domestic production of motor fuels which do not meet
international quality standards, inadequate distribution infrastructure in the remote parts of
the country which contribute to high product prices, proliferation of sub-standard fuel
dispensing facilities, under-dispensing of products including adulteration of motor fuels and
dumping of export products.

2.4 Measures being taken

The government has continued to finance extension of electricity supply in the rural areas as
part of the basic infrastructure to stimulate economic growth and employment creation. The
current policy provides for the extension of electricity to market centres, public secondary
schools, youth polytechnics, health centres, and water systems, among other community
projects. This is intended to increase electricity access in rural areas currently at 4% to 12%
by the year 2012.

The government is also encouraging the Kenya Power and Lighting Company to adopt
affordable connection policies so as to boost the number of customers in the rural areas. This
is already happening. The company has come up with attractive customer connection
policies that include transformer maximization and Umeme Pamoja which have seen the
number of connections rising significantly to over 120,000. Further, the company has come


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up with a more flexible mode of settling the connection fee where a customer is connected
upfront upon payment of a deposit while the balance is settled in installments.

A Rural Electrification Authority charged with the mandate of implementing the Rural
Electrification Programme came into operation in July 2007. This is expected to increase the
speed of implementation of several projects that are lined up for implementation throughout
the country. Currently, the Authority is in the process of developing a comprehensive rural
electrification master plan which shall provide crucial information for selecting projects for
funding at a given time.

In addition, Ethiopia and Kenya have undertaken a feasibility study financed by several
international development partners to facilitate the transfer of electricity to Kenya from a
number of large Ethiopian hydropower projects that provide power at lower costs compared
to local ones.

The government has already taken steps to modernize the oil refinery at Mombasa.
Installation of a Thermal Cracker technology will make its products competitive with
imported products.

2.5 Key projects to be implemented from 2008 – 2012

The key projects to be implemented during 2008 – 2012 period are described below:


i) A total of 215 rural electrification projects, estimated to cost Kshs. 1,483 million, are
scheduled to be completed by February 2008. These projects include new isolated
power stations being erected at Hola (Tana River district), Elwak (Mandera
district), Mpeketoni (Lamu district), Merti (Isiolo district), Habasweni (Wajir
district) and Mfangano Island (Suba district) at a cost of Kshs.474 million. All
these projects are being funded solely by the Government of Kenya.


ii) Rural electrification: Kenya is committed to a Rural Electrification Programme in
partnership with donors. The Government of France is currently financing a rural
electrification project to the tune of KShs. 2.7 billion to cover various parts of the
country. Upon completion,
the project will facilitate connection of power to 460 trading centres and 110
secondary schools, among other public facilities. The new Rural Electrification
Authority will build on these achievements to bring more electric power to rural
Kenya.


iii) Power to Public Institutions: The Government intends to spend KShs. 180 million to

provide solar electricity generators to 74 public institutions including boarding
primary and secondary schools, health centres and dispensaries in Baringo,
Marakwet, Samburu, West Pokot, Turkana, Makueni, Narok, Kajiado, Moyale,
Marsabit and Mandera districts. This project will be extended under Vision 2030.


iv) Energy access scale-up programme: Through this project, one million households
will be connected with electricity over the next five years at an estimated cost of


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KShs.84 billion. The programme will target connecting all major trading centres,
secondary and primary
schools, community water supply works and health centres in the country. This
programme will be financed by the Government as well as development partners.


v) Enhanced oil supply capacity: Plans are underway for installation of booster pump
stations to double the capacity of the Mombasa to Nairobi oil pipeline from
440m3/hr to 880m3/hr. 4 booster pumps will be installed in Samburu, Manyani,
Makindu and Konza.


vi) Extension of the national oil pipeline: A study has been completed on the projected
demand for petroleum products in the country. The Kenya Pipeline Company has
selected an Engineering Design and Construction Supervision Consultant for the
construction of a 340km parallel oil pipeline from Nairobi to Eldoret.


vii) Joint ventures: The Government will also partner with the government of Uganda

and Tamoil East Africa limited in a Joint Venture Company for the extension of
352km oil pipeline from Eldoret to Kampala.


viii) Construction of 6,000 tonne common user LPG import handling facility in

Mombasa through public – private partnership. This is expected to increase parcel
sizes imported thus reducing freight costs and making LPG cheaper to Kenyans.


ix) Construction of 2,000 tonne common user LPG handling facility in Nairobi. With
increased storage space, supply sources will increase thus competitively priced
LPG can be obtained.


x) Local coal supply: following the completion of appraisal drilling in Mui Basin of
Kitui and Mwingi district, Kenya will have access to local coal as an every
source. Initial exploration activities have indicated existence of coal. Appraisal
drilling projects to ascertain the commercial quality and viability of the deposits
are in progress.


xi) Olkaria IV appraisal drilling of 6 wells are expected to produce 70 mw of electricity.

The project is expected to prove that commercially exploitable steam is available
in the field.


xii) Wind Power Generation by IPP’s at various sites. It is envisaged that wind power

will provide total power installed of about 150mw.


xiii) Co-generation Power: Power will also be obtained in the process of producing
sugar. It is envisaged that the potential of about 120 mw will be exploited using

sugar factories as a base. This will be done through public-private partnership.


xiv) The Energy Sector Recovery Project (ESRP), funded by the World Bank and
some bilateral donors, has a major component on “Distribution Reinforcement
and Upgrade” to be implemented over a period of four years. This is intended to
improve quality and reliability of supply, reduce system losses and increase


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access to electricity service especially in the urban and peri-urban areas. This is of
special interest to the industrial sector where power outages in the past led to
losses.

xv) The Governments of Kenya and Tanzania have obtained funding for implementation
of a 330kV transmission line project between Arusha in Tanzania and
Nairobi. This will be another source of extra power.


2.6 Science, Technology and Innovation

The Vision recognises the role of science, technology and innovation (STI) in a modern
economy, in which new knowledge plays a central role in boosting wealth creation, social
welfare and international competitiveness. There are four elements that allow effective
exploitation of knowledge: (a) an economic and institutional regime that provides incentives
for the efficient use of the existing knowledge, the creation of new knowledge, and the
flourishing of entrepreneurship; (b) an educated and skilled population that can create, share
and use knowledge well; (c) a dynamic information and communication infrastructure that
can facilitate processing, communication, dissemination; and finally (d) an effective
innovation system (i.e. a network of research centres, universities, think tanks, private
enterprises and community groups) that can tap into the growing stock of global knowledge,
assimilate and adapt it to local needs, while creating new knowledge and technologies as
appropriate.

Kenya intends to become a knowledge-led economy wherein, the creation, adaptation and
use of knowledge will be among the most critical factors for rapid economic growth.
Experience from countries such as South Korea, Malaysia, Finland, Ireland, China and Chile
illustrates that rapid progress can be made over relatively short periods of time by pursuing
coherent strategies build the capabilities to create, access, and use knowledge. Vision 2030
recognises that in the process of the emergence of the knowledge economy is always
associated with an increase in science-related and technology-related activities. The World
Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Report of 2006 notes that, alongside the
quickening pace of global economic integration, the marked acceleration in the pace of
technological and scientific progress has been a major driver of the transformation of the
world economy since World War II. This has been accelerated by the removal of
international barriers to the flow of goods, services, capital and labour, and by rapid
technological and scientific progress. Technological advances have also reduced the cost of
transport and communication and created new opportunities for business and employment.

STI has, therefore, become central to the new economic sectors that have given momentum
to the upward growth of knowledge-based economies as a whole over the past few decades.
In this regard, STI will be critical to the socio-economic transformation of the country.
Kenya harnesses science, technology and innovation in all aspect of its social and economic
development in order to foster national prosperity and global competitiveness. Science,
technology and innovation will be mainstreamed in all the sectors of the economy through
carefully-targeted investments. This will create a strong base for enhanced efficiency,
sustained growth and promotion of value addition in goods and services. To achieve that
objective, additional investment must be made in STI, sectors that lag in the application of
STI must be exposed to its benefits, there must be better coordination of Kenya’s multiple


Page 22

institutions dealing with research and development, and Kenya must adopt a better STI
dissemination strategy.

Strategies for promoting science, technology and innovation


• Strengthening technical capabilities: Kenya will strengthen her overall STI capacity.
This will focus on creation of better production processes, with strong emphasis on
technological learning. The capacities of STI institutions will be enhanced through
advanced training of personnel, improved infrastructure, equipment, and through
strengthening linkages with actors in the productive sectors. This will increase the
capacity of local firms to identify and assimilate existing knowledge in order to
increase competitiveness.


• High skilled human resources: Though better than that of many countries in the

region, Vision 2030 has in mind Kenya’s pool of talent is small and inadequately
trained for integration into the job market. Measures will therefore be taken to
improve the national pool of skills and talent through training that is relevant to the
needs of the economy. The current transition rate from secondary level education to
university will be increased and the postgraduate training strengthened, particularly in
science and technology.


• Intensification of innovation in priority sectors: To intensify innovation, there will be

increased funding for basic and applied research at higher institutions of learning and
for research and development in collaboration with industries. Furthermore, measures
will be taken to coordinate research activities among the various institutions to ensure
synergy and to avoid duplication. Proven technical knowledge produced in industries
and tertiary institutions, including universities, will be transformed into technologies
and protected as intellectual property rights. Indigenous technology, which is part of
our national heritage, remains unmapped and has exposed our national heritage to
misuse by external interest groups. Measures will be taken to identify and protect this
heritage. In order to encourage innovation and scientific endeavours, a system of
national recognition will be established to honour innovators.


• STI awareness: In view of the importance of STI in society, efforts will be made to

promote awareness of new ideas and discoveries to the general public. The Vision
will create and deepen STI awareness, particularly in the social sphere and to support
initiatives to develop STI solutions to address current and future development
problems.


2.7 Land reforms

Land is a vital factor of production in the economy. In addition it has aesthetic, cultural and
traditional value that should not be underestimated. The performance of key growth sectors
of the economy and the attachment of Kenyan communites to land all affect access and
utilisation of land in Kenya. Before and after independence, land has remained a contentious
and unresolved issue for those reasons. The absence of a national land use policy has led to
the proliferation of informal settlements, inadequate infrastructural services, congestion,
environmental degradation, unplanned urban centres, pressure on agricultural land,


Page 23

environmental degradation and conflicts. In addition, most of the land in the country has not
been registered, which hinders people from asserting their rights over land. To date, a only
4.06 million title deeds have been registered countrywide.

Secure access to land contributes to social and economic development and guarantees tenure
which builds more confidence in the investors, be they small or large. Ain improved dispute
resolution mechanism has therefore been instituted through the Land Disputes Tribunals to
speed up dispute resolution. However, there is a backlog of land dispute cases, some going as
far back as 20 years. These require judicious and expeditious settlement, something the
Kenyan Judiciary is already working on.

To provide adequate support to the projects and programmes expected under Vision 2030,
the following policies will be accorded priority.

Sustainable land use: The current land use practices in the country are incongruent with the
ecological zones. For instance, large portions of land in high potential areas have been sub-
divided into uneconomic parcels, while some parts of land in the medium and low potential
areas are rapidly being converted into agriculture, despite the fragile environment they are
located in.

Although the country has approved 221 local physical development plans, 12 regional
development plans and 1 structure plan in the last four decades, proliferation of informal
settlements, urban sprawl and encroachment into protected land remain fundamental
challenges.

Unsustainable land use persists even in the 453 planned settlements schemes that have been
established over the past 40 years. Nevertheless, these schemes provide an opportunity for
rationalised provision of basic infrastructure and facilitate utilisation of land for agriculture.
With the rising population and rapid urbanisation projected in Vision 2030, the settlement
schemes programme will need to be stepped-up to cope with demand.

Land reform: The legislative framework to handle land-related cases is weak. This has
contributed to a backlog of land-related disputes in courts. In addition, land issues are
governed by many laws, most of which are incompatible. This has led to complexities in land
administration and management. However, progress has been made to develop a national
land policy that will principally provide an overarching framework for access to, planning
and administration of land in the country. It will also address issues related to restitution of
land due to historical injustices and the institutional framework. The reform will also address
grabbed public utility plots.

Land and boundary disputes: A large number of pending land and boundary disputes have
slowed down the finalisation of adjudication work. This has also contributed to increasing
poverty among some communities. Measures proposed in the national land policy as well as
those in the political pillar will go a long way in addressing this challenge.

Land information system: The current system of managing land records manually has slowed
down land transactions. Although some 3.5 million land records have been digitally scanned,
a computerised information management system is yet to be established. To speed up land


Page 24

transactions, increase land revenue and discourage corruption, a Geographical Information
System (GIS)-based Land Information System will be necessary. National Spatial Data
Infrastructure will also be needed to facilitate the management of geo-spatial information
relating to land.

In general, the land reforms envisaged in Vision 2030 are geared towards a holistic
management of this critical resource so as to create a foundation for the implementation of
projects identified in the Vision. In the short term, this will require speedy approval of the
draft national land policy and relevant legislation.

2.8 Human resource development

Kenya aims to create a globally competitive and adaptive human resource base to meet the
requirements of Vision 2030. Kenya’s main potential lies in its people – their creativity, work
ethic, education their entrepreneurial and other skills. To ensure significant and consistent
results, the human resources will be managed, rewarded and steered to develop global
competitiveness. To be successful in developing competitiveness, the capacity to utilise
knowledge and information in design, production and marketing of traditional exports will be
enhanced. This will result in quality human resources in health care, education, and training
on improving work performance.

Kenya’s global competitiveness will depend on the ability to create a human resource base
that will be constantly subjected to re-training and access to technological learning within
employment. These specific human resources play a major role in contributing not only to
efficiency gains in existing economic activities, but also in diversifying economic sectors and
activities in order to realize productivity gains.

Situation Analysis

One of the main characteristics of some of the countries that have achieved major
transformations in the last decades, such as Taiwan and Chile, was the high quality of their
pool of technical, industrial and entrepreneurial human resources. However, the key to
success lies in the proactive measures to ensure training of human resources in order to
respond to the changes that are triggered by global economic transformation. Kenya’s ability
to fully benefit from its existing human assets has been hampered by inadequate management
and planning. The current institutional setup and the work ethic must now change in order
for Kenya to achieve quality results. Mismatch between demand and supply must be
corrected. This has contributed to factors such as the high cost of doing business.

For the country to compete in the global economy as it is likely to be a new policy on
development of highly qualified yet flexible human resources will be adopted. The standards
of technically qualified personnel and professionals must be raised to international levels.
Kenya’s pool of technically qualified personnel and professionals must be matched with
skills demand in specific sectors, not deployed to the wrong industries or government
departments. At the same time, there is an emerging age-gap between the senior and junior
technically qualified personnel and professionals in areas such as science, engineering,
technology and research. As a consequence, the rapidly growing economy has started
showing human resource constraints, particularly in the most specialised scientific areas.


Page 25


Kenya’s business environment is characterised by a large number of Micro and Small
Enterprises (MSEs), which account for roughly 75 per cent of total employment and an
estimated 18 per cent of GDP. However, human resource development in MSEs is also
facing various constraints, including inadequate technical and entrepreneurial skills. A
suitable support for human resource development in those sectors will be needed in order to
drive competitiveness.

Vision 2030 priorities under Human Resource Development


Human resource data: Accurate data is required to strengthen the management and co-
ordination of human resources. The production of human resources has continued to be
supply-driven and does not adequately respond to changing employment requirements.
This has led to an over-supply in certain areas and a shortage in others, particularly at the
cadre level. Kenya will create a national human resources database in order to track
trends to supply and thereby adjust them to demand.
• Productivity: Although the country’s productivity level ranks low by international

standards, Vision 2030 provides an opportunity for significant productivity growth.
One of the main challenges is the need to carry out an assessment of the productivity
level across sectors and monitor productivity growth. In addition, productivity
improvement approaches will have to be identified and implemented. This will ensure
the objective of attaining competitiveness that will not be hampered by inadequate
productivity growth. A national productivity center for that task will be started.


• Strategic management and co-ordination: The existing mismatch between skills and

job opportunities implies that the existing capacity of human resources is under-
utilised. Strategic management and co-ordination of human resources will be required
in order to utilize existing capacity much better. This will involve identifying,
attracting and retaining talent, particularly in the key sectors. It will also encourage
tertiary institutions of education and training to provide a pool of human resources
that can be readily absorbed into productive employment.


• Social security: The National Social Security Fund (NSSF) established four decades

ago has not kept pace with changing socio-economic situation in the country. The
Fund’s mandate is being reviewed to effectively meet the social security needs of
retired, retrenched and self-employed people, among others. Other issues, such as job
flexibility in the current context of rapid global transformation, will also be addressed
to ensure productivity gains. NSSF could also provide financial support to many of
the projected Vision 2030 projects in terms of long-term investment bonds.


Training for Micro and Small Enterprises: Kenya’s large number of Micro and Small
Enterprises (MSEs) will need human resource development to meet their needs. This will be
done through specialized training at different levels: community polytechnics, and the
technical, industrial, vocational and entrepreneurship (TIVET) institutions which will be
discussed under the education section of Vision 2030.

Human resources development strategies for 2012


Page 26

For the period 2008-2012,, specific human resource development interventions will be
undertaken in the following areas.

• Human resource development within employment: Learning within employment will be

institutionalized with emphasis on technological learning within local enterprises.
Deepening of technological knowledge will be part of that effort. The Government will
encourage collaboration with the private sector knowledge-sharing, particularly amongst
MSEs. Innovative strategies will be used to foster collaboration between sectors.


• Identification of talent in the education sector: A strategy will be put in place to identify
talent within the education sector in order to fast-track it for key career, specializations in
short supply. That specialised training will be expected to specifically provide special
skills demanded by Vision 2030 flagship projects.


• Identification and attraction of top Kenyan talent from abroad: Specific measures will be

implemented to tap Kenyan expertise abroad, including virtual return, consultancies and
permanent returns. In particular the Diaspora policy and Bill will be prepared to facilitate
Kenyans in the Diaspora.


• Harnesing retired high cadre talent: Kenya’s mandatory retirement age for the public

sector is 55 years. Many retirees are capable of making oa contribution to our
development. The gaps in high calibre and middle-level technical skills will therefore be
partly addressed by tapping retired technical and professional Kenyans.. This will be
achieved through specific mentorship programmes.


• Strengthening linkages: Linkages between the industry, technical training institutions and

research institutions will be strengthened. This will promote training that is demand-
driven, and ensure that technical and research institutions are responsive to the
requirements of industry, particularly in the priority sectors.


• Reorientation of human resources: The government will retrain and redirect human

resources in excess supply to areas experiencing shortages in order to meet the
requirements of enterprises. In addition, cross-cutting factors that influence the
productivity of human resources, including incentive pay, team work, employment
security, job flexibility, information sharing and labour relations will be given due
consideration.


2.9 Security

The vision for the security sector is a “society free from danger and fear”. One of the
foundations of Vision 2030 is security of the individual and of property. Security is vital in
achieving and sustaining the economic growth rate that is anticipated in Vision 2030.
Freedom from danger (i.e. protection from physical or direct violence), and freedom from
fear (i.e. a sense of safety and overall well-being) provide an enabling environment for
individuals and businesses to thrive. It is a key incentive for attracting investment both from
within and outside the country. Though steadily improving, insecurity continues to impose a
huge burden on business in the country, with some firms spending up to 7 per cent of total
sales, or 11 per cent of total costs on security infrastructure and personnel. In addition,


Page 27

business firms spend an average of 4 per cent of sales on insurance against crime. Such
spending not only increases the cost of business transactions but it also constrains growth of
the private sector. This situation must change.

Situation analysis
The impact of reforms in the security sector, including community-based policing, is being
felt. Between 2004 and 2005, the number of reported incidences of crime in the country
declined by 10 per cent (i.e. from 83,841 to 75,400). The year 2006 witnessed a further 4 per
cent drop to 72,225. In 2006, apart from other forms of offences against persons and other
petty offences, stealing was the main type of crime, constituting 15 per cent of reported
cases. This was followed by crime related to drugs and robbery, which represented 8 per cent
and 7 per cent of all cases, respectively. Although economic crime represented a mere 3 per
cent of all crime, such crime has a negative effect on the economy and discourages
investment.

Sources of insecurity in the country
Insecurity in the country is attributed to five main factors:
• Availability of small arms and light weapons: The presence and proliferation of small

arms and light weapons among ordinary offenders, criminals, and quasi-militia pose a
dangerous threat to public safety, human security, conflicts and development. Most of
the supply can be traced to instability in our neighbouring countries. This overall
situation could discourage investment and it is in any case a problem that all Kenyans
want resolved. As security improves, Kenya will create a 24-hour business economy as
anticipated in Vision 2030.

• Political violence: Kenyan political parties tend to have regional following. The Kenyan
political landscape constitutes ethnically-based political parties. This often causes tension
among political parties and results unnecessary confrontations. Addressing this problem
through relevant legislation and programmes, as envisaged in the political pillar, will be
key to sustaining Vision 2030.

• Resource conflicts: The majority of conflicts witnessed in Kenya are natural resource-
based. The general decline in key resources, such as land, water and pasture, due to rising
population, increased economic activities and natural factors is the main contributor to
conflicts. This is exacerbated by the presence of many lethal firearms within the country
and across the borders.

• Cattle rustling: Although this practice has traditionally been associated with cultural
demands, it has taken a commercial dimension whereby stolen cattle are sold to slaughter
houses. Curbing this practice will be necessary for the regularisation and
commercialisation of the livestock sector.


The Government intends to reduce current crime levels by 46 per cent in 2012. To achieve
that, the Government will pursue the following specific goals:

• Improve the police population ratio from 1:811 to 1:450;
• Double the prison to area ratio;
• Increase police officers trained on forensic investigation by 500;
• Install effective ICT infrastructure in all security agencies;
• Provide a framework for coordination among security stakeholders;


Page 28

• Collaborate with the judiciary in reducing the number of suspects held in remand
homes, as a result of delays in court.


Those goals will be realised through the following strategies:

• Recruitment of more staff: This will improve service delivery by improving the police
to population ratio;

• Establish an institutional mechanism: The aim of this strategy is to check the conduct
of police and make them accountable to the people and to the rule of law. Measures
will also be developed to depoliticise security institutions;

• Crime prevention: There will b a shift in focus from response to prevention of crime
through intensified surveillance and improved crime detection skills. Modern crime
investigation techniques (e.g. forensic investigation and use of ICT) will be
promoted;

• Capacity building: This will include intensified training of security staff and
provision of the necessary equipment in all security agencies.

• Improved terms and conditions: This will require provision of better living and
working conditions for staff in Kenya’s security services;

• Enhancement of security along the borders to address proliferation of small arms and
illicit drugs across the borders;

• Improvement of coordination and communication among the various institutions
dealing with security to enhance effective management of crime; and

• Annual customer satisfaction surveys undertaken to appraise the effectiveness of the
on-going reforms.


In the short term the following projects will be implemented to bring about changes in
security management in the country:

• Establishment of a forensic laboratory;
• Installation of surveillance cameras in Nairobi, Mombasa, Nakuru and Kisumu;
• Construction of six new prisons in Mwingi, Nyamira, Kwale, Rachuonyo, Vihiga and

Kaloleni; and
• Establishment of a national security database


2.10 Public service

The Kenyan Vision for public service is “a citizen-focused and results-oriented” institution
serving a rapidly growing economy and society.

Kenya recognises that a modern, and results-focused public service is a prerequisite for the
country’s socio-economic transformation as envisaged under Vision 2030. To this end,
various measures have been initiated in 2004 in order to improve public service delivery.
These have yielded significant gains. However, further efforts will be necessary to
consolidate and up-scale these gains to ensure that Vision 2030 is anchored on a sound public
service foundation. Public service reform will in addition ensure that the Government
provides an environment that is suitable for the private sector to thrive and thus take the lead
in economic development. Public service reform in Kenya will aim at placing citizen
satisfaction at the heart of policy making and service delivery. This will require even more
efficiency and efficacy in our public service in a corruption-free environment.


Page 29


So far, efforts under the Economic Recovery Strategy, aimed at improving public service
delivery by strengthening the link between planning, budgeting, programme implementation
and coordination. Additional efforts have been directed towards improving performance
management and human resource management. Nevertheless, accountability in the delivery
of services still require a wider sense of ownership, in our country.

Kenya is aware that countries that have achieved significant results in economic performance
have also embraced results-based management in the public sector. Kenya will therefore
adopt international best practices in her reform programme. The success of this reform will
depend upon the institutionalisation of Results-Based Management (RBM), transforming
leadership, and developing new competencies for government. All of these must be founded
on a strong core of public service values and ethics that aim at improving the welfare of all
Kenyans.

Considerable progress has already been made. The public service reforms undertaken so far
have improved the quality of service delivery considerably. Kenya was awarded the 2007 UN
public service award in recognition of its institutionalisation of reforms in Public Services.
Despite this achievement, there some constraints which must be overcome in order to provide
the quality of services demanded by Vision 2030, including:

Changes in attitudes: The delivery of public services in Kenya still characterised by a culture
rooted in the poor understanding of the fundamental principle of the public service, namely
to serve rather than dictate to citizens. By involving the citizens in determining policies and
priorities, a change in values and ethics throughout the public service will occure. This will
also improve transparency and accountability in our public service, which is critical for
achieving Vision 2030’s goals.

Service delivery orientation: Currently, public service delivery is process- rather than results-
based. As a result, the quality of services offered to ordinary citizens is not commensurate
with government spending on service delivery across the sectors. This will change.

Capability and capacity: The capability and capacity within the public service have improved
but to deliver the kind of services envisaged in Vision 2030 they need to get better. It will
therefore be necessary to align the existing skills inventory to the Vision, and to build extra
competencies in areas of shortage as mentioned in the section on Human Resources in this
document.
Performance management: The management of the public service has to shift to reward on
merit. In the past, it has tended to reward seniority rather than performance. These practices
have contributed to inefficient and unethical use of public funds. Performance management
will be deepened so that both rewards and sanctions are used to encourage provision of
quality services.

Strategic direction: Public service delivery will be guided by clear strategic planning at
ministry and departmental level. As a result, the provision of services within the sectors will
translate into the overall national development agenda.


Page 30

To re-structure Kenya’s public service so as to provide a sound foundation in support of the
economic, social and political pillars, the following five strategies will be adopted:


• Re-define the purpose of Government institutions: To develop a fit-for-purpose public
service within the context of Vision 2030, the strategy will define the mandate and
core business of the public sector institutions. It will also define the appropriate
service delivery mechanisms and also arrange for audit and for accountability at all
levels.


Capacity building for improved service delivery: The capacity of public servants determines
the quality service delivery. Measures will therefore be taken to raise the level of skills in our
public service. This will involve fast-tracking the development of competencies, including
transformative and executive leadership to ensure professionalism and continuous learning.
Strengthening of institutional capacity, by leveraging information technology, (as explained
in the Information, Science and Technology section of this document) will be accorded
priority.

Public Sector Knowledge management: Knowledge building and management will be a
fundamental aspect of growth and competitiveness in the Kenyan economy. In our Public
Service, measures will be designed to allow better sharing, and dissemination of knowledge
particularly about all public service reforms.

Deeper Stakeholder engagement: A firmer mechanism for structured involvement of
stakeholders in the determination of service of delivery priorities will be devised.It will
provide opportunities for government and other stakeholders to work together to maximise
results bearing the year 2030 in mind.
Performance management: A performance management mechanism for transforming the
public service from process to results- orientation will be instituted. The ongoing
performance-contracting initiative and the rapid-results approach will be up-scaled and
deepened to support the realisation of performance targets outlined in Vision 2030.

Flagship project
As a first step in delivering the above strategies, the Kenya School of Government will
provide instruction for improved performance in all aspects of the public service. It will also
devise ways to inculcate public service values and ethics, and transformative leadership. The
Kenya School of Government will benchmark its performance to the most distinguished
institutions in its category.


Page 31

CHAPTER 3:
ECONOMIC PILLAR: MOVING THE ECONOMY UP THE VALUE
CHAIN

3.1 Overview

To assess the existing opportunities and challenges for Kenya’s economic growth, a
diagnostic analysis was conducted by the Vision 2030 research teams, covering over 20 sub-
sectors in 2006/2007. The analysis included two additional sectors, business process
outsourcing (BPO) and bio fuels which, though currently play a limited role, have significant
potential to become important contributors to the country’s economy over time.

After considerable consultations with Kenyan experts, stakeholders, policy-makers, and
investors, they settled for six priority sectors that promise to raise GDP growth rate to the
region of 10 percent in a number of years. These are: tourism; agriculture and livestock;
wholesale and retail; trade; manufacturing; finance, and BPO. These sectors make up the
bulk of Kenya’s GDP (57 per cent) and account for approximately half of the country’s total
formal employment. The sectors are supported by enabling sectors, such as energy,
telecommunications and transport.

3.2 Tourism
Kenya aims to be among the top ten long-haul tourist destinations globally. China, Mexico
and Malaysia are the leading destinations for long-haul tourists worldwide, accounting for 47
million, 22 million and 16 million annual visitors, respectively. In Africa, Egypt and South
Africa are the leading long-haul tourist destinations. To be ranked among the top ten, Kenya
must expand her global and African market share by offering new products, expanding
tourist expenditure per capita and by improving her international marketing strategies.

Kenya has shown an impressive performance in the tourism sector since 2002, increasing the
total number of annual tourist arrivals (both regional and long haul) from an estimated 1
million in 2002 to 1.6 million in 2006. This improvement occurred despite major global
challenges that faced the sector, such as rising oil prices and health scares, (including fears of
avian flu) and advisories against international travel to Kenya. Total earnings from tourism
rose from KShs. 25.8 billion in 2003 to KShs.56.2 billion in 2006. A significant contribution
to this growth has been attributed to strategic international advertising by the Kenya Tourist
Board, particularly in the traditional source countries, such as Britain, USA, France, Italy and
Germany.

Attaining the top ten long-haul destination status will involve addressing constraints facing
the sector and implementing strategic projects to improve the quality and breadth of Kenya’s
tourist offerings at the coast, in game parks, and in “niche” products (e.g. cultural and eco-
tourism), as well as an expansion in conference tourism. Further attention will be paid to
creating an environment where tourists spend more per visit. Although the primary focus will
be promotion of Kenya as a long haul tourist destination, Vision 2030 will also encourage
domestic and regional tourism in order to even out fluctuations occasioned by the decline of
visitors during the traditional low seasons.


Page 32

Whereas Kenya stands to gain enormously from tourism by 2030, policies and strategies
must be put in place to mitigate unintended adverse outcomes, such us child prostitution,
drug abuse and environmental degradation. Measures have already been put in place to
ensure that these excesses do not grow. Preservation of moral norms embedded in our
cultural traditions and values will be another way of dealing with these problems.

Situation analysis
Tourism accounts for close to 10 per cent of Kenya’s GDP and 9 per cent of total formal
employment. Over the last three years, tourism has been one of the fastest-growing sectors
e.g. between 2004 and 2006, visitor numbers grew by 22 per cent each year. Tourism
remains a leading earner of foreign exchange for the country, and brought in US$800 million
in 2006. Due to its many linkages to other sectors (including agriculture, manufacturing,
banking and finance, wildlife, entertainment and handicrafts), tourism has great potential to
generate employment and wealth.

As shown in figure 3.2.1, the tourism sector expanded significantly over the period 2001 –
2005. Employment in the sector grew by 3 per cent yearly, while earnings per employee
grew by 18 per cent per annum.

Figure 3.2.1: Formal tourism employment and earnings per employee


Kenya can and must do better. While the number of international visitors increased to a
record 1.6 million in 2006, other top tourist destinations like South Africa and Egypt
attracted four to five times more tourists than Kenya (8.2 million in Egypt and 7.5 million in
South Africa). In addition, the average spending per tourist in Kenya is lower than in other
destinations (e.g. tourist expenditure per capita is 70 per cent more in Egypt). This shows that
Kenya has enormous potential for increasing tourist arrivals and overall earnings. While the
number of tourists and length of stay have been increasing over time, average spending by a
tourist per day has been low compared to competing destinations.

Kenya’s tourism sector offers a varied set of products that respond differently to price
changes. Coast tourism, for example, is highly competitive and sensitive to price changes,

Earnings per
employee*
KSh Thousands

498
434372325260

2004 2005 2001 2002 2003

* Calculated as tourism earnings divided by employment; Based on earnings in trade restaurants and
hotels due to data availability

Source: Economic Survey 2006; Ministry of Tourism

Formal employment
Thousands

176
170

163158157

% of formal employment 9 0% 9 0% 9 1% 9 3% 9 4%


Tourism accounts
for a sizeable
portion of formal
employment


Page 33

while premium parks (e.g. Amboseli, Maasai Mara and Samburu) and niche products (e.g.
community and eco-based tourism) are so unique that they can be marketed successfully at
higher prices. Consequently, the strategies to be developed for the sector will ensure that
these differences are taken into account

Challenges and opportunities

In order to exploit the growth opportunity in the tourism sector, the following challenges will
be addressed:

Increasing hotel/bed capacity: With the recent increase in tourist arrivals, the bed occupancy
levels during the peak season are close to full capacity (92 per cent). As a result, hotels and
lodges are struggling to cope with the rapid growth in demand, principally due to limited
investment in tourist accommodation in the last decade. During the Vision 2030 period, it
will be necessary to substantially increase investment in this area, particularly to enhance
bed capacity.

Product quality and diversity: Tourism in Kenya is currently concentrated in only 7 parks,
which receive 80 per cent of the total number of visitors to the country’s 26 wildlife
sanctuaries. There is, therefore, great potential in targeting the remaining 19 parks and
reserves. In addition, only 18 per cent of Kenyan hotels are in the 4-5 star categories, which
is significantly lower than the average of 40 per cent in competing long-haul destinations
such as South Africa (Figure 3.2.2). To increase our competitiveness, there is a need to
expand our product choice and the quality of our facilities and services. This will also lead to
higher spending by tourists. The Government will work with the private sector to achieve the
necessary improvements and expansion, with a focus on “niche” products, resort cities,
business and safari tourism.

Figure 3.2.2: Hotel ratings in Kenya and South Africa

Source: Kenya Ministry of Tourism; Euromonitor International;

9

9

30

40

12
1 star

2 star

3 star

4 star

5 star

100% = 188

1226

46

11

5

3 star

4 star 5 star

1 star

2 star

100% = 753

Breakdown of Hotel types in Kenya Breakdown of Hotel types in South Africa

• ~18% of hotels are 4 and 5 star
• ~48% of hotels in Kenya are 3

stars and above

• ~38% of hotels are 4 and 5 star
• ~84% of hotels in South Africa

are 3 stars and above


Page 34

Improving and extending infrastructure: Despite recent improvements in the state of
infrastructure there is need for further investment in the sector, particularly, to improve roads
in key resorts and also new parks targeted as destinations of additional tourists. Additional
infrastructure will also be required for proposed resort cities together with the new tourist
products in high potential areas. This will include upgrading of our international airports in
the country and construction of new aerodromes and roads to and within the parks. In
addition, there will be a need to secure animal migrations routes and rehabilitate and extend
infrastructure, particularly in the coastal region. Efforts will be made to upgrade other
support services that have been straining to cope with increased numbers.

Marketing Kenya as a tourist destination: The Government will promote aggressive
advertising campaigns to inform potential tourists about Kenya’s attractions and facilities in
order to increase her global market share. Such advertising will target high spending tourists
in traditional and new markets. Specific focus will be given to Kenya’s top five sources of
tourists (i.e. UK, USA, Germany, Italy and France) as well as other high-potential markets
(e.g. Scandinavia, India, South Africa and Japan). In addition, it will be necessary to expand
domestic and regional tourism. Substantial resources will be devoted to marketing new
tourist’s attractions. In the year, 2004 Kenya spent approximately US$4 million on
marketing the country as an attractive tourist destination, while our long-haul competitors,
such as Thailand and South Africa, spent US$214 million and US$61 million respectively.
To add value, national parks and reserves will be branded according to their various
attributes. Together with all these efforts, the tourism sector will benefit from the completion
of the Brand Kenya initiative, which will market Kenya as an international destination and
also create a sense of national pride.

Improvement of security: In the past, Kenya’s tourism sector has suffered from negative
publicity on insecurity, both real and perceived. One of the major sources of this insecurity
has been political instability in the region, which has led to increasing cross-border traffic in
small arms. Other sources of insecurity include cattle rustling, income inequalities, and
unemployment. Vision 2030 has proposals to deal with these problems under the three
pillars. To improve the security situation within the country, the Government is strengthening
the overall capacity of the Kenya Police that will include training and new equipment and
buildings. Kenya has also been involved in peace-making initiatives in the region which are
already paying dividends. The Government will continue to allocate more resources to
improve the overall security situation in the country.

Strategic leadership and coordination: While significant improvements have been achieved
in the last four years, there is still room for better coordination and collaboration among
public and private sector players. This will avoid unnecessary competition and duplication of
marketing efforts. The Government will institute proactive measures to coordinate the
various players in the sector and also address strategic initiatives and concerns, especially
those related to international tourism.

Goals for 2030
The Vision for the tourism sector is to “become a top ten long-haul tourist destination in the
world that offers a high-value, diverse and distinctive visitor experience”. To achieve this
objective, there will be a critical focus on the quality and the diversity of tourism products in
the country (Figure 3.2.3). The Government, in partnership with the private sector and other
stakeholders will develop four key tourism products:


Page 35

• The Coast product: This will include the development of segments along the coast
that are currently underutilised, together with expansion and improvement of quality
in the existing facilities;

• The Safari product: The aim will be to improve the quality of premium safari parks
and open resorts in underutilised parks;

• Niche products: Targeted initiatives will nurture and expand high-value niche
products such as cultural tourism, eco-tourism, sports tourism and lake tourism; and

• Conference and business tourism product: The Government and the private sector
will work together to increase revenue from this product through investment in new
and existing hotel facilities, and through upgrading of air travel facilities.


Figure 3.2.3: Tourism goals for Vision 2030

Coastal
• Coastal beaches e.g., south coast,

north coast, Malindi, Lamu
• Marine parks
• Water sports e.g., diving, jet skiing
• Swahili culture and architecture

Wildlife Safari
• 20+ wildlife parks

– Premium parks e.g., Masai Mara,
Amboseli, Nakuru

– Wilderness parks e.g., Tsavo, Meru,
Samburu

– Sanctuaries e.g., Nairobi Safari Park
– Scenic e.g., Hells Gate, Shimba Hills

Niche Products
• Cultural e.g., home visits and home stays
• Eco-tourism e.g., Laikipia
• Forests e.g., Kakamega, Aberdare
• Water-based e.g., Lake Victoria, fishing on Tana

River etc.
• Mountains e.g., Mt Kenya and Mt Elgon

Business
• Presently centred around Nairobi
• Includes business segment (165,000 arrivals) and

conference segment (17,000 arrivals)
• KICC largest conference facility (5,000 capacity)

1

2

3

4

Source: Interviews with industry specialists;


Goals for 2012
The first horizon will provide the foundation for achieving the goals for 2030, which will
include the following two targets:
(i) Increasing international visitors from 1.6 million in 2006 to 3 million in 2012. Achieving
this target will require:

• Doubling the number of bed-nights at the coast;
• Exploiting the underutilised parks by increasing safari bed-nights by at least 50 per

cent;
• Trebling the number of bed-nights in nascent niche markets; and
• Doubling the number of bed-nights for business and conference tourists.


(ii) Attempting to increase average spending per visitor through:

• Improving the up-market Safari and the niche products to double the yields; and
• Improving the quality of tourism facilities and the diversity of the attractions offered

to visitors.


Strategies for 2012


Page 36

The overall strategy for the sector between 2008 and 2012 is to treble national earnings from
tourism. This will be achieved through increased bed-night occupation at the coast, safari
business and niche products. Figure 3.2.4 provides rough estimates of the expected trends
over the period.


Figure 3.2.4: Growth in tourist product contribution to tourism GDP: 2006 – 2012

-2006

2012 17.4

-

26.8

-

21.4

-

24.1

13.4

20.1

* Safari is proxied by “Masailand, Nyanza and Central”, Business assumed to be high-end “Nairobi” bed night numbers
)

Tourism GDP by product
KSh Billions

8
5

7

2
4

4

10

20

2006

22

Coast Safari Business Niche

Active expansion in
capacity, primarily through
resort cities

11

9

9

32

62

2012

Coast

Safari

Business

Niche

Yield-focused strategy in
premium parks,
complemented by expansion
in underutilised parks

Scaling up business visitor
offering, e.g., more high-
end hotels, conference
centres

Significant increase in the
niche but high-value
segment

Bed nights
(millions)

Spend per
bed night
(KSh 000s)

2.42006

2012 5.7

0.8

1.3

0.9

1.3

0.4

1.2

4.5

9.5

ESTIMATES


Source: Vision 2030 Research Teams, 2007

Strategies to achieve the goals for 2012 will include implementation of measures to improve
and develop the main tourism products, diversification of tourist sources, human resource
development and improving security.

Development of products

The following four products will be developed:

i. The coastal products: The coastal products will be diversified and improved by:

• Attracting new investments in existing as well as new hotels with emphasis on 4-5
star hotels;

• Increasing bed capacity to cope with the projected growth in tourist arrivals;
• Constructing two resort cities; and
• Promoting Kenya as an international tourist destination, with a unique coastline.


As figure 3.2.5 demonstrates, increase in bed space is grew fastest at the coast – by 44 per
cent between 2001 and 2005. That demand will continue to rise and it will be met in large
part by opening more of the Kenyan coast to tourism development. Kenya has 29 beds/km of


Page 37

coast line, which could be trebled by the provision of more accommodation in existing and
new hotels, as has been done in Morocco. A third resort city will also be constructed around
Isiolo area to optimise the rich tourism potential presented by Mt Kenya, Meru National
Park, the Aberdares and Samburu National Park, among others.


Figure 3.2.5: Growth in demand for bed space (2001-05) and potential of new
developments at the Kenyan coast

Demand
Share of increase in bed demand 2001–05, %

Source: Kenya Wildlife Service; CIA World Fact Book; Central Bureau of Statistics Economic Survey

86

29

Kenya Morocco

3 times

Supply
Coastal beds per kilometre of coastline

• Largest increases in bed night demand has been on the coast

• However, Kenya’s coastal development is low as less than a quarter of
Kenya’s 536 km coastline is so far developed for tourism

21

13

21

44Coast

Nairobi

Masailand

Other


Each of the planned resort cities at the coast will have a specific theme (Figure 3.2.6). The
one at Kilifi will be a mass family-friendly resort targeting predominantly high-income
tourists, while the one in Diani will emphasise wellness and an exposure of tourists to the
rich culture of Kenyan communities.


Page 38


Figure 3.2.6: Features of proposed resort cities on the Coast

• Mass tourism family-based resort
• Predominantly high-incomeTheme

Site profile

Facilities

• Midway between Mombasa and
Malindi

• Access to marine parks at Watamu
and Malindi, and Gedi ruins

• Within 2 hours of Tsavo game park

• ~8 000 beds in land
– ~16 hotels (twelve 4/5 star, four 3

star) totalling ~7 000 beds
– 5 quality apartment complexes of

~ 1 000 beds total
– 100 exclusive villas

• Designer golf course on coast
• Shopping mall/promenade
• Cinema
• Wooded park
• Coastal cuisine school
• Water-based amusement park
• Aquarium
• Go-cart racing track
• Horse riding
• Conference centre

• Wellness, culturally themed
• Exclusive and high quality

• Close to Diani Beach amenities
• Access to dolphin watching at Kisite
• Access to Tsavo game park
• Within 2 hours of Tsavo game park

• ~5 000 beds
– ~12 hotels (80% 4/5 star)
– 100 luxury villas

• Premium, signature golf course
• Spa
• Gyms
• Saunas and jacuzzi
• Multiple luxury swimming pools
• Horse riding
• Shopping
• Beauty salon
• Conference centre

Family-friendly resort at Kilifi Wellness-focused resort at Diani Beach

Theme

Site profile

Facilities


Source: Vision 2030 Research Team, 2007

ii. Safari products: Safari tourism constitutes a premium product in Kenya given her
game variety, ease of access and favourable climate that allows visits to the
reserves and parks throughout the year. However, despite the premium quality the
country offers, Safari tourism faces constraints, such as poor infrastructure, many
undeveloped parks, lack of tourist facilities within the parks and past incidents of
insecurity. As a result, there is relative concentration of visitors in a few parks,
such as Nakuru, Maasai Mara and Amboseli. To diversify and increase the value
of Safari products, a new strategy will be developed to encourage more tourists to
visit under-utilised and un-utilised parks.


• Premium parks – The over-utilised parks will be branded and the quality of

accommodation in these parks will be substantially improved, making it
possible for these parks to charge premium prices forall their facilities.


• Under-utilised parks – The existing facilities and infrastructure in these parks

will be rehabilitated and expanded. In particular, the current bed capacity will
be improved and expanded. Furthermore, measures will be taken to attract
new investment to the parks and to advertise tourist attractions at the parks.
These parks include Meru, Mt Kenya, Tsavo East, Tsavo West, Mt Elgon and
Ruma, among others.


iii. The Niche Products: Kenya has traditionally focused on the Coast and Safari

tourism products; however, to scale up tourist arrivals, there is need to move to
niche products with a target bed capacity of 3,000 beds in regions offering these


Page 39

products. Niche products will be strategically developed to link up the Coast and
Safari products. The specific products to be promoted include the following:


• Eco-tourism – This product has been gaining popularity owing to its

environment-friendly aspects, and is particularly popular in European and
American markets. Sites for this product will be developed in Kakamega
Forest, Ruma National Park, Mt. Elgon and Mt. Kenya regions.


• Cultural tourism – Kenya has a wide variety of indigenous cultures, which

have not previously been explored for tourism purposes. Deliberate efforts
will be made to promote authentic cultural experiences. The Government will
partner with stakeholders to develop criteria to certify cultural homes.


• Water-based tourism – Although the country has enormous potential for

water- based tourism, this remains largely under-utilised. This is particularly
the case in fresh waters such as Tana River and Lake Victoria where products
to be developed will include water sports and fishing. To facilitate the
development of this product, additional bed capacity will be required in Lake
Victoria and Ruma national park.


• Sports tourism – Kenya enjoys a great international reputation in sports. This

potential has not been fully exploited, and provides a good foundation for
promotion of various types of sports tourism. Deliberate efforts will be made
to promote Kenya as a popular destination for sports tourism.


iv. Business and Conference Tourism: Kenya has a large potential for business and

conference tourism as a major product owing to its location and ease of
international connections (Figure 3.2.7). This product will be improved by up-
grading and building new conference facilities, with possible location in the three
new resort cities. To cater for increasing numbers of business tourists, the
Government, together with private sector stakeholders, will also promote
investment in hotels by international chains in major towns, especially in the
cities of Nairobi, Mombasa and Kisumu


Page 40

Figure 3.2.7: Comparative potential growth for business tourism

Source: International Congress and Conference Association;

. . . creating an opportunity for
Kenya in a market presently
dominated by South Africa

Association meeting attendees
in Africa
Thousands

. . . but Africa is increasing its
numbers and share of the
world market . . .

Global association meeting
attendees
Millions

2.2

2.8

2001 2006

100

73

2001 2006

2.6% 4.5%
2

2

3

7

28South
Africa

Egypt

Tunisia

Kenya

Morocco

Number of international
conferences (2005)

Global association meetings
have been in decline . . .

x% Share of world market


Diversification of tourist sources
As part of the marketing strategy, the Government will work with stakeholders to diversify
the tourism market and reduce reliance on a few countries as the main sources of tourists to
Kenya. This will reduce supply instability in this market. Potential sources of tourists to
Kenya will be identified and strategies developed to attract them to the country.

Development of human resources for the tourism sector
As depicted in Figure 3.2.8, Kenya will experience a shortage in trained staff for the tourism
sector between 2008 and 2012 arising from the demand for high level skills that will be
required by the projected growth in the tourism sector. As explained in the education and
training sector, Kenya will invest in training in high quality skills for the tourism sector. To
encourage private sector investment in training for the sector, the Government will develop
national training and testing standards targeted to the hospitality industry. To improve the
quality of all-round tourism products, the Government, together with all stakeholders, will
mount a continuous campaign aimed at changing negative attitudes towards tourism and
creating awareness about the importance of providing quality services in the industry.


Page 41

Figure 3.2.8: Estimated shortfalls in trained staff for the hotel industry

• Utalii
• Kenya Polytechnic
• Mombasa Polytechnic
• Eldoret Polytechnic
• National Youth Service

Hospitality Training College

• Nairobi
• Kenyatta
• Moi
• Masena

• Intercontinental
• Sarova
• Serena

Number of
graduates
per year

3

3

4

4
Parastatal
tourism
colleges

State
Universities

Hotels with
training
provision

Private
Universities

• Daystar
• USIU
• Catholic Universities

Organisations

Internationally accredited

200

150

1 55020%

20

18

* Based on ~1 900 new graduates from existing institutions here
** Assumes 2 service staff required per bed

-Excludes private sector training providers in hospitality industry

1 920

Number of
schools

Utalii provides
90% of graduates
in this category

No. of graduates
required to meet
increased high-
end bed capacity

~40 000

Shortfall of
trained tourism
staff required to
meet 2012
goals**

~30 000

Baseline no. of
graduates
expected by
2012*

~10 000

Total


Source: NESC, Vision 2030, Research Team, 2006

Kenya managed to expand its expenditure for marketing in key tourist source countries to
US$4 million in 2004. The result has been an unprecedented increase in tourist arrivals in the
country from 547,000 in 2003 to 964,000 in 2006, as shown in figure 3.2.9. However, in
order to meet the level of tourist arrivals in 2012, Kenya will need to substantially expand its
expenditure on advertising the country as a preferred destination, given the amounts allocated
to marketing by her international competitions e.g. Thailand, South Africa and Egypt. Using
a combination of public, private sector and international sources, Kenya will increase its
marketing budget to a level necessary to meet the growth in tourist arrivals projected under
Vision 2030.


Page 42

Figure 3.2.9: Kenya’s marketing budget compared to long-haul destinations

* Calculated using average yield globally for tourists from that country
** Calculated assuming half of observed increase due to marketing

*** Assuming that all other non-marketing factors that contributed to the increase in visitors in 2003–06 continue to make the same contribution to
increased passenger numbers

Source: Kenya Tourism Board 2006; WTO;

0.3

0.3

0.5

0.8

1.0UK

USA

Germany

Italy

France

Extra visitors
Thousands

9

8

18

13

14

Kenya’s annual marketing
spend (US$ Millions)

Extra earnings
US$ Millions*

12

15

20

19

8

~900%
~1 200%

~800%
~2 600%

~2 400%

Amount spent by each country on marketing
US$ Millions

4

61

122

214Thailand

Egypt

South Africa

Kenya

Return on
investment**

Marketing
spending of
competing
long haul
destinations

Kenya’s
marketing
investment
in top 5
source
countries

Impact of
marketing
investment
on interna-
tional
visitors

964832668547496493506

2000 01 02 03 04 05 2006

+21%
+3%

KTB introduces US$4m TMRP
marketing campaign***

Number of international air and sea arrivals (Thousands)


Improvement of security
The Government will enhance the ongoing reforms in the law and order sector, including
recruitment of additional security personnel. The objective of this initiative is to improve the
ratio of police officers to the population. Another initiative will include enhanced training,
improved housing, better equipment and enhanced community policing.

Flagship projects and key initiatives in tourism
In collaboration with local and international investors, the Government will undertake the
following major projects and initiatives to deliver 2012 targets for the tourism sector:


1. Construction of resort cities: Three resort cities (two at the coast and one in Isiolo)
will be constructed in areas with the greatest potential to attract tourists. The
implementation of this project will require:
• Site selection based on results of a feasibility study, environmental impact

assessment and availability of land;
• Development of initial business plan outlining the strategic location, size and key

activities, which may include sporting facilities;
• Identification of potential investors through road shows and other promotional

activities; and
• Development of the supporting infrastructure


2. Upgrading of premium parks: The Government will launch appropriate initiatives to

promote premium parks, such as the Maasai Mara, Amboseli, Samburu and Nakuru.
The primary objective of the initiative is to ensure sustainability of the parks. The
initiative will include:
• Upgrading of hotel accommodation – The Government will consult with

stakeholders and introduce a moratorium on new low value investments (below 4-


Page 43

star hotels). This will be done in conjunction with upgrading of accommodation
and services in the parks.

• Increasing entry fees and accommodation charges – With the additional revenue
from higher fees, the Kenya Wildlife Services (KWS), local authorities and
communities will target the promotion of security, better infrastructure,
conservation efforts and better surveillance of parks to prevent abuse.


3. Improvement of under-utilised parks: A programme to develop under-utilised parks

will be implemented. The parks to be developed under this project include Meru, Mt.
Kenya and Tsavo East and West. In improving these parks, consideration will be
given to the carrying capacity of each park, environmental factors, and the maximum
number of visitors that can be allowed into each park without compromising its
natural characteristics. As already mentioned, improvement of Kenya’s under-utilised
parks will also involve attracting investments in high quality accommodation in
hotels and lodges. The focus will be in 4–5 star hotels with capacities of 30–50 beds
each.


4. Development of niche products: The Government will identify areas suitable for niche

products and then market them to the visitors. This will involve investments in
targeted low utilised areas, such as the Lake Victoria and forested areas in Kakamega,
Mt. Elgon, Ruma, Marsabit, Rift Valley and the Tana River (Figure 3.2.10). With
regard to cultural tourism, efforts will be made to certify households in each
community in Kenya that can provide tourists with a cultural experience.


Figure 3.2.10: Overview of proposed niche products initiative

Western
Kenya Eco-

tourism
Circuit

Symbols key

Key site for upmarket
accommodation
development

Required road upgrades
Lake Victoria Road
(Lolgorian to Kendu)

1

• Brand western Kenya as Kenya’s
eco-tourism hub

• Build 3 000 high-quality beds
around 7 main sites e.g.,
Kakamega, Mt Elgon, Ruma
National Park , Lake Victoria,
Marsabit, Lake Turkana, Tana
River

• Establish 1 000 high quality home
stay locations

• Launch high-value culture projects
e.g., music, home stays, cooking
lessons, dancing courses

• Create package of eco-tourism
investments in Western Province,
for marketing and attracting
investment

• Leverage rail link for scenic
connection with Nairobi

• Ensure quality cruises and other
water activities on Lake Victoria

1

Lake Victoria
•1 200 new beds

Mt Elgon
• 200 new beds

Kakamega Forest
•200 new beds

Ruma National
Park
• 400 new beds

Key projects

Home stays
• Accredit 1 000 households to

receive high-end visitors

Eldoret
• Distance running

museum

Tana River
• 200 new beds

Marsabit
• 300 new bedsLake Turkana

• 500 new beds


Source: NESC, Vision 2030 Research Team, 2007


Page 44

3.3 Agriculture

Overview of the agriculture sector
Agriculture is the mainstay of the Kenyan economy and currently represents 24 per cent of
GDP. More than one-third of Kenya’s agricultural produce is exported, and this accounts for
65 per cent of Kenya’s total exports. The agricultural sector accounts for 18 per cent of total
formal employment in the country (Figure 3.3.1).

There are more than 5 million smallholders engaged in different types of agricultural
activities in the country. Estates and plantation farms of various sizes are fewer in number
and make up a smaller part of the sector. The compound average growth rate (CAGR) in
agriculture between 2001 and 2005 was 5.2 per cent but the export growth was much higher,
at 8 per cent. However, formal employment in the sector grew by a mere 1 per cent.

Figure 3.3.1: Agriculture’s contribution to the economy (2001 and 2005)

Source: Central Bureau of Statistic

GDP
100% = KSh1,415 billion

Exports
100% = KSh194 billion

Formal employment
100% = 1 807 712

24

65

92.0

2001

126.0

2005

CAGR
+8%

278.0

2001

342.0

2005

CAGR
+5.2%

312.6

2001

327.4

2005

CAGR
+1%

Agriculture is the foundation
of the Kenyan economy,
accounting for 24% of GDP

Export growth is driven by
horticulture

Agriculture accounts for 18%
of formal employment

Agriculture

Rest of economy

Agriculture GDP
KShs Billions

Agriculture exports
KShs Billions

Agriculture formal employment
Thousands of employees

18


The agricultural sector is made up of four major sub-sectors, namely, industrial crops, food
crops, horticulture, and livestock and fisheries. The relative contributions of these sub-sectors
are shown in Figure 3.3.2. For example, industrial crops contribute 55 per cent of agricultural
exports. Further, of the total agricultural contribution to GDP, 17 per cent comes from
industrial crops. Similarly, horticulture has recorded significant export-driven growth in the
past five years and is now the largest sub-sector. Although the livestock and fisheries sub-
sector is currently declining, it has high potential for growth. The development of that
potential is one of the objectives of the Vision. Food crops make a significant contribution to
Kenya’s GDP (at 32 per cent of Kenya’s agricultural GDP) and are also important for food
security.


Page 45


Figure 3.3.2: Distribution of coffee output and productivity levels by farm size.

% of Agriculture GDP*

% of Agriculture exports

Agriculture
sector

Sub-sectors

1.1. Industrial

1.2. Horticulture

1.3. Food crops

1.4. Livestock
& fish

Characteristics

• Primarily cash crops not for
immediate consumption

• Includes primary processing

• Mix of consumables and
non-consumables

• Excludes agro-processing

• Immediate consumption/
staple crops

• Meats and fish for
immediate consumption

• Excludes meat processing,
dairy, and leather goods

55

38.5

0.5

6

17

33

32

14

Activities (%
contribution to sector)

• Tea (11)
• Coffee (2)
• Sugar cane (3)
• Cotton (<1)
• Tobacco (<1)
• Sisal (<1)
• Barley (<1)
• Fruit (6)
• Vegetables (20)
• Flowers (7)
• Nuts (<1)
• Spices (<1)

• Maize (15)
• Wheat (1)
• Rice (<1)
• Sorghum (1)
• Millet (1)
• Legumes (14)

• Poultry
• Goats
• Sheep
• Cattle
• Hides
• Fish (2)

(12)

• Horticulture
and food
crops make
up 65% of
agricultural
GDP

• Horticulture
and
industrial
crops
account for
over 90% of
exports

* Remaining 6% is made up of agricultural extension services, forestry, etc.
Source: Ministry of Agriculture;


Opportunities and challenges
Despite the central role that agriculture plays in the Kenyan economy, the sector continues to
face four major challenges that have to do with productivity, land use, markets and value
addition.

• Productivity: Productivity levels for many crops are below potential and for some
agricultural produce, yield and value over a five-year period have either remained
constant or are on the decline, as shown in Figure 3.3.3.


Page 46


Figure 3.3.3: Yield and value per hectare of key crops and livestock (2001-2005)


Tea is high-
value crop while
cotton has the
lowest value per
hectare

Commercial
nature of flora-
culture achieves
high value per
hectare

While food crops
do not have high
values, they are
key to Kenya’s
food security

Growing

Declining

Agriculture
sector

Sub-sectors
Hectares
(1,000s)

Production
(1,000 tons)

Yield
(Kg/ha)

Value*
($/ha)

1.1. Industrial

• Tea 141 329 2 325 $3 848

• Coffee 170 45 266 $703

• Cotton 32 19 600 $168

• Sugar cane 145 4 801 71 460 $886

1.3. Food
crops

• Maize 1 760 2 918 1 657 $365

• Wheat 160 366 2 293 $614

• Rice 16 57 3 635 $790

1.2.
Horticulture

• Vegetables 122 1 392 11 392 $1 997

• Fruits 155 1 905 12 253 $1 801

• Flowers — — $53 1732.1

1.4. Livestock
& fish

• Beef 150 kg
CDW

per
head

Note: It is important to note that a 1:1 comparison is not totally possible since, for example, cotton grows on less valuable land than coffee and
tea

* Includes only production value
Source: Ministry of Agriculture 2006; FAOSTAT;

>50% below
benchmark

Key


In 2005, total coffee production was 45,200 tonnes, of which 44 per cent came from coffee
estates with the balance (56 per cent) came from smallholder coffee farms noworganised
through producer cooperatives. However, as shown in Figure 3.3.4, productivity in large
estates was greater than in smallholder farms by a factor of 10. Increasing the volume and
value of productivity in the smallholder is pact of Government policy, and new ways must be
found to improve efficiency at farm level and to add value to Kenya Coffee prior to
marketing.


Page 47

Figure 3.3.4: Productivity levels of coffee (2005)

Source: Coffee Board of Kenya; Ministry of Agriculture (2005)

Kenya annual coffee production

44

56 Small-
holder

Estate

Small-
holder

Small
estate

Large
estate

199

469

2 000

+ 136%

Productivity
Kg/hectare, 2005100% = 45 200 tonnes (2005)

610,000 small-
holders organised
through
cooperatives

Increasing small-
holder yields to
that of small
estates could
increase coffee
production by
76%


Agricultural productivity is constrained by a number of factors, including high cost of inputs
(especially the price of fertilizer and seeds), poor livestock husbandry, limited extension
services, over-dependence on rain-fed agriculture, lack of markets, and limited application of
agricultural technology and innovation. However, for some crops, the productivity of Kenyan
farmers is close to international standards. For example, yields for wheat, which is grown
predominantly by estate farmers, are only 20 per cent below those in the US. This indicates
that it is possible to substantially raise levels of productivity in agriculture.


• Land use: Land remains under-exploited for agricultural production. In the high and
medium potential areas, only 31 per cent of the land is under crop production, which
represents a mere 5 per cent of the total land in the country (see Figure. 3.3.5).


Page 48

Figure 3.3.5: Land use in Kenya by function: 2006


Source: Ministry of Agriculture, 2007

Moreover, much of the available cropland remains under-utilised. For example, on average,
smallholders use 60 per cent of their crop land for agricultural production, suggesting that a
substantial amount of high and medium potential land is currently idle (see Figure 3.3.6). If
utilised to grow appropriate crops, this land has the potential to generate approximately
KShs. 87 billion, annually.


6


13

19


31


31

16

84

Arid and
semi-arid

High- and
medium-
potential

There is substantial
amount of idle or under-
utilised lands

land type
100% = 57.6 m hectares

High and medium potential lands
100% = 9.2 m hectares


Croplands

Livestock/
Dairy

Urban
Homesteads,
infrastructure

Game parks


Forests


Page 49

Figure 3.3.6: Potential land for additional crop production

Source: Tegemeo Household Survey 2006; Central Bureau of Statistics; Ministry of Agriculture;

166

227

230

549

997

1 101Rift Valley

Coast

Central

Nyanza

Western

Eastern

3,270Total

Land type

High-potential

Medium-potential

High-potential

High-potential

High-potential

High-/medium-
potential

Uncultivated hectares with
potential for crop land
Thousands Province

Examples of key
potential crops

Coffee, potato

Coconut, cashew
nut, maize

Coffee, horticulture

Horticulture, cotton, ground
nuts, tea, coffee

Wheat, potato

Napier, coffee, maize,
cotton and ground nuts

Approximately 1 million hectares (
one third of 3,270 hactares) could
be available for crops


The arid and semi-arid lands (ASAL), representing 84 per cent of the total land mass of the
country, remain largely under-exploited (Figures 3.3.6 and 3.3.7). There are 24 million
hectares in the ASAL that can be used for livestock production, but only 50 per cent of the
carrying capacity of the land is currently being exploited. Additionally, there are 9.2 million
hectares in ASAL which have the potential for crop production if irrigated. This irrigable
area is equivalent to the total farmland in high and medium potential areas in the country.
However, with the collapse of Hola and Bura irrigation schemes, the amount of land under
irrigation in the ASALs is now negligible. In the medium and high potential areas, less than
one per cent of the land is under irrigation.


Page 50

Figure 3.3.7: Broad land classification in Kenya by region

Turkana
Marsabit Moyale

Wajir

Mandera

Garissa

Tana
River

IjaraTrans
Mara

Narok

Kajiado
Kitui

Makueni

Mwingi Mbeere

Laikipia

West
Pokot

Samburu
Baringo

Isiolo

Arid

Semi-arid

High- and medium-
potential

Source: Ministry of Agriculture

T/Taveta
Kilifi

Mombasa

Key


• Markets: Marketing presents another major challenge to the agricultural sector.
Productivity of the sector is constrained by inefficiencies in the supply chain. Supply-
side inefficiencies result from limited storage capacity, lack of post-harvest services,
and poor access to input markets. Exploitation by middlemen also creates distortions
in the market. Agricultural exports have relied heavily on a few key markets. There is
a need for proactive efforts to maintain existing markets and create new ones and to
increase Kenya’s bargaining power in global agricultural markets (see Figure 3.3.8
for a horticulture example).


Page 51

Figure 3.3.8: Kenya’s horticultural exports by market destination


• Value addition: Value addition in agriculture is important in determining the
competitiveness of Kenya’s produce on world markets. For example, Figure 3.3.9
shows that though UK and Germany are not among the top ten tea producers in the
world, they are still key players in the world tea export market. They earn substantial
revenues from re-exporting value added tea. In contrast, Kenyan farmers export semi-
processed, low-value produce, which accounts for 91 per cent of total agriculture-
related exports. The limited ability to add value to agricultural produce, coupled with
high production costs (e.g. the prices of energy and infrastructure), makes Kenyan
agricultural exports less competitive in global markets. Kenya will therefore adopt
policies that will enable the country to capture a greater percentage of value-added
than at present.


Percent

7

92

Asia
and

Afric

Total value of Kenyan horticulture export
market

8

1

2

5

Others
Netherlands/
Scandinavia
France,
Belgium,
Germany

UK

Source: Horticulture Crops Development Authority; TechnoServe, 2007

With tariff-free
exports to the
EU concluding
end of 2007,
heavy
concentration of
horticulture
exports to these
countries makes
industry very
vulnerable in
the near term


Page 52

Figure 3.3.9: The role of value addition in the world tea market: 2006


The four challenges discussed above are exacerbated by the unfavourable institutional
framework currently governing the agricultural sector. The laws and regulations under which
the agricultural sector operates are administered by different departments and ministries of
the Government, including those dealing with water, lands, the environment and local
authorities, besides the Ministry of Agriculture. This situation overburdens farmers who have
to deal with multiple laws and regulations in such matters as land adjudication, water
abstraction, and fees related to market access. The handling of related aspects of agricultural
activities by multiple agencies poses a potential risk of inter-agency conflict to the detriment
of farmers.

Vision for the agricultural sector
The vision for the agricultural sector is to be “innovative, commercially-oriented and modern
farm and livestock sector”. The achievement of this vision will require a strong focus across
five key strategic thrusts, namely:

• Reforming institutions by transforming key organisations, such as cooperatives,
regulatory bodies and research institutions, into complementary and high-performing
entities that facilitate growth in the sector;

• Increasing productivity through provision of widely-accessible inputs and services to
farmers and pastoralists;

• Transforming land use to ensure better utilisation of high and medium potential lands;
• Developing arid and semi-arid areas for both crops and livestock; and
• Increasing market access through value addition by processing, packaging and

branding the bulk of agricultural produce. This will in part entail proactively
exporting value-added goods to regional and global markets.


Top 10 tea producers
(2004)

56

64

101

108

165

202

295

308

85Chin

85Indi

Sri

Ken

Turk

Indone

Vietna

Japa

Argenti

Banglade

732 521Sri

464 925Chin

463 726Ken

377 742Indi

259 008United

131 929Germa

116 018Indone

95 550Vietna

49 016 Belgiu

43 246United
Arab

Top 10 tea exporters
(2004)

Source: FAO; FAOSTAT, 2006

Non-producing

Kenya is the 4th
largest tea
producer in the
world but
non-producing
countries, like the
UK, generate up
to 50% of Kenya
export earnings
by adding value
to tea


Page 53

Goals for 2012
The overall goal is to achieve an average growth rate of 7 per cent per year over the next 5
years. This growth rate translates to an additional income of KShs. 80 billion, which is a
significant contribution of agriculture to GDP. The overall growth rate will be achieved by
meeting targets within three key strategic thrusts:

• To increase productivity, measures will be taken to raise yields of key crops and
livestock towards the realisation of levels recommended by the country’s agricultural
research institutions;

• The transformation of land use will be done by putting idle land in existing farming
areas into productive agricultural use. In this regard, at least 1 million additional
hectares will be brought into production;

• In developing ASALs, the target is to put an additional 600,000 –1.2 million hectares
under irrigation.


Figure 3.3.10: Agriculture vision and strategies


Source: NESC, Vision 2030, Research Teams, 2007

Strategies to deliver on 2012 goals
To realise the goal of increasing the contribution of agriculture to GDP by KShs. 80 billion
over the next five years, the following strategies will be pursued:

Institutional reforms
The agricultural sector still operates under some outdated colonial legislation dating back to
the 1930s, which is an impediment to the growth of the sector. Reforms will be implemented
in the sector to improve productivity, avail more land for cultivation, and enhance access to
existing and new markets. Furthermore, mechanisms for overarching coordination of various
Government departments that affect agricultural productivity will be implemented to reduce
duplication of effort and inter-agency conflicts. The main priority is the enactment of the
Consolidated Agricultural Reform Bill to provide the necessary legal framework for the
changes shown in Figure 3.3.11.


V ision 2030
Inno vati ve, com m erc ially -oriented,

m odern agriculture

Increa se productivity
• Inc rease produc ti vity of

c rops and lives tock

• Raise y ields of key c rops and
lives tock to s tandards
recom m ended by research
ins t itutions

• Inc rease produc t i vity in sm all-
holders farm e rs

• Inc rease utilisation of idle lands

• 600,000 to 1.2 m illion
additional hec tares under
cult ivation

S tra te gic thrusts

Stra te gy

Land use Tran sform ation
B etter utilisation of high- and
m edium -potential lands

A S A L developm ent
• S trategically develop irriga ble

areas of A rid and S em i-A rid
Lands (ASA L) for both c rops and
lives tock

• Reduce input cos ts and inc rease
access to km arkets

• Create com prehe ns i ve and
transparent land regis try

• Create agriculture land use
m as ter plan
– Prom ote effec ti ve and

effic ient land use to inc rease
produc ti vity .

– Utilize idle land

• Coordinate s takeholders to
plan and im plem ent inno vati ve
de velopm e nt schem es

• Im pro ve pro vis ion of agricultural
services (e.g., R&D, ex tens ion,
inform ation ) on prices)

In stitu tional reform
• Trans form key ins titutions into com plem entary and high-perfo rm ing entit ies that enable pri vate-sec tor agricultural

growth

Increa se acce ss to m ark ets
• Im pro ve access to m arkets by sm all holders

• Consolidate regulatory role o f
go vernm ent

• Coordinate and prom ote
agricultural in ves tm ents and
exports

Inc rease agriculture contribution to Kenya’s GDP by about KS hs 80 by 2012 , with prospec ts for greater gro wth
through 2017

Ove rall

Spe cific

G
oa

ls
fo

r
20

12


Page 54

Figure 3.3.11: Transition in Agricultural Reforms

Source: Ministry of Agricuture, 2005

From a sector where . . . . . . to a sector where

• Outdated laws that limit competition are
in force half a century after
independence

• Laws that foster agricultural competitiveness
and regulate the sector for the benefit of both
domestic and foreign investors

• Parastatals play multiple, often
contradictory roles in areas of regulation,
licensing, processing, marketing and
lobbying roles

• Functions are consolidated in an appropriate
institution with clear, complementary and
unambiguous roles and mandates

• Government institutions facilities the sector
by creating a stable and enabling policy and
regulatory environment• Government institutions undertake multiple

non-core functions inefficiently or ineffectively

• Parastatals perform multiple, non-core
functions thereby constraining the
competitiveness of the sector

• Parastatals undertake clear, core government
functions, roles and mandates


Further to the above institutional changes, other priority areas in the reform process will
include:

• Strengthened research and development: Agricultural research and development
(R&D) will be improved through the strengthening of human and financial capacities
of various agricultural research institutions. The coordination of these institutions will
be enhanced through better regulation, monitoring and evaluation. There will be
increased levels of interaction between the Government, the private sector, academic,
research institutions and farmers. This interaction will ensure that resources are better
allocated to reduce duplication of research and dissemination activities. Greater
collaboration among the stakeholders will be promoted to strengthen the connection
between research, policy and the application of research findings. In addition,
Government funding on agricultural R&D will be increased from KShs 3.2 billion to
the NEPAD recommended level of 2 per cent of agriculture GDP. The structure of
funding to agricultural R&D will be reorganised to put more resources into research
activities rather than into overheads and salaries of non-research staff. Figure 3.3.12
shows the expenditure pattern for the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, which is
strongly in favour of overheads and salaries of non-research staff.


Page 55

Figure 3.3.12: KARI’s expenditure pattern (2005)


* Salaries and benefits represents 68% of total overhead budget

Source: Ministry of Agriculture, 2005.

15

23

1

61

2005

Scientists

Technical
research

Management

Support staff

Breakdown of staff levels
%

Breakdown of KARI expenditure
%

Breakdown of project expenditure
%

2080
Over-
heads* Project

9

16

4
5

12

21

33

Others
Biotechnology
Biometrics
Hort. And Ind crops
Food crops

Livestock

Land and water
management

100% = 3 732 FTEs 100% = KSh3.1 billion 100% = KSh0.6 billion

• Less than 40% of the staff are researchers

• 20% of the total budget is spent on projects

• 4% of project funds are focused on biotechnology
and related research


• Improved delivery of extension services: This will be realised by increasing the
number of extension officers per farm household. The current national average is one
extension officer per 1,093 farm households (Figure 3.3.13). Avenues to outsource
extension services outside of Government, particularly from producer organisations,
NGOs, universities, and the private sector will be pursued to increase agricultural
extension capacity.


Page 56

Figure 3.3.13: Farm households per extension officer by province

• Although the average
annual expenditure per
district is KSh60 million, its
impact is limited due to
lack of complementary
resources and poor
training of extension
officers

• The NGOs, churches,
private sector and
untrained staff provide
extension services but at
different levels of quality

• With a current annual
extension expenditure of
KSh4 billion, it might be
possible to improve service
delivery to farmers through
strategic partnerships with
private- sector and not-for-
profit providers

Central

Coast

Eastern

North Eastern

Nairobi

Nyanza

Rift Valley

Western

751:1

1 180:1

746:1

714:1

1 221:1

1 421:1

1 497:1

409:1

National Average:
1,093:1 (5.4 million
farm households
per 4,939 extension
officers)

Source: Ministry of Agriculture

Number of households per extension officer


• Strengthened producer organisations: Producer organisations will be strengthened to
enable them to discharge their mandates effectively. This, in part, will involve
making producer organisations more accountable to farmers who fund them through
levies on farm produce.


• Integration of agricultural investment and export promotion into the activities of

investment and export promotion authorities: This integration will facilitate domestic
and foreign investment in the sector. Moreover, it will help to increase existing
market share as well as create opportunities for new markets. To facilitate greater
integration of agricultural promotion activities, more resources will be allocated to
development activities. Currently, the share of recurrent expenditure in total budget of
the nation’s leading export and investment authorities ranges between 80 – 90 per
cent (see Figure 3.3.14). This situation limits the funding for programme activities.


Page 57


Figure 3.3.14: Development versus recurrent expenditures at the KIA and EPC (2006)

Source: Export Promotion Council; Kenya Investment Athourity

The EPC has limited
funds to spend on
programmes and yet
is mandated to serve
a cross-section of
sectors

Export
Promotion
Council

Kenya
Investment
Agency

The KIA has limited
funds for
programmes to drive
investment growth in
agriculture and other
sectors

Programmes

Recurrent

17

83

Recurrent
expenditure

Programmes

12

88

Recurrent
expenditure

Programmes

Key


Increase productivity
The Government will focus on improving the productivity of key crops and livestock by
launching investment initiatives in the following areas:


• Fertilizer cost reduction: On average, 61 per cent of smallholder farmers (excluding
those in North Eastern Province) used fertilizer in 2006 as illustrated in Figure 3.3.15.
Low use of fertilizer has been associated with the high cost of the product. In order to
increase fertilizer usage, a three-phase cost-reduction strategy will be implemented.
The strategy will involve improved coordination of bulk purchasing, provision of
incentives for local blending of fertilizer, and exploration of long-term opportunities
for domestic production of this vital farm input. As shown in Figure 3.3.16, the three-
phase fertilizer cost reduction strategy will start with a procurement and supply chain
management initiative that could reduce costs to smallholders by up to 30 per cent,
resulting in potential saving to the economy of KShs. 1.4 – 1.7 billion.


Page 58

Figure 3.3.15: Fertilizer application levels in Kenyan smallholder farms

Source: Tegemeo Rural Household Survey 2006

Province

Average fertiliser application
rate
Kg/acre

Households
using fertiliser
%

100

53

51

3

68

28

59

67

Recom-
mended rate

Nyanza

Rift Valley

Central

Coast

Western

National
average

Eastern

81

83

42

79

7

64

61


Figure 3.3.16: Three-phase fertilizer cost-reduction strategy

• Quick-win cost reduction to
farmers by following models
of Kenya Tea Development
Agency

• May involve initial
government funding to kick-
start bulk purchases

• 30% cost savings to farmer
• Doubling of size of market

• Establish blending facilities
near producers around
country

• Import raw material in bulk
and blend and package
locally

• Incentives to blenders
• Initial bulk ordering

• Further reduce fertilizer
cost

• Revitalize local industry
• Begin supplying to the

regional market

• Establish production
facilities near sources of
raw materials

• Strategic sourcing of raw
materials from neighbour
countries

• Further reduce cost
• Intensify growth of local

industry
• Capture portion of growing

US$300 million regional
fertilizer market

Procurement and supply
chain management
(2007–08)

Domestic blending
(2008–10)

Domestic production
(2010+)

Plan

Role of
govern-

ment

Intended
result

* Natural gas
** Phosphates

Source: Kenya Tea Development Agency; MEA


• Irrigation intensification and expansion: Improved irrigation is critical to increasing
agricultural productivity. In this regard, incentives will be provided for farmers to
invest in energy- and water-efficient irrigation systems and technologies. The
irrigation issues are covered under the water and irrigation sections of the Social
Pillar.


Page 59

• Seed improvement: The quality of seeds available to farmers affects farm yield.
Strategies will be implemented to increase seed quality and seed adoption rates by
encouraging competition in the sector by intensifying research on new seed varieties,
commercialising already improved varieties, and working with farmers to develop
farm-level selection methods to improve their own varieties.


• Livestock development: Several approaches will be implemented to improve livestock

productivity, including increasing the availability of animal feeds through targeted
programmes, such as seeding ranches and rangelands and enriched fodder, stemming
the decline and re-energising the use of artificial insemination services (currently at
29 per cent of 1981 levels), and purchasing breeding bulls and cows for targeted parts
of the country, especially around the proposed Disease-Free Zones.


Transform land use structure
Several factors affect the way land is used in Kenya. In some parts of the country, high
population densities, cultural practices of dividing land for inheritance, and the fact that most
Kenyans live on their own plots in the rural areas have resulted in highly fragmented and
often uneconomical plots. There are also some parts of the country with low population
density, and in which certain cultural practices and other factors lead to idle or under-utilised
land. These institutional and cultural constraints to efficient land utilisation will be addressed
through several policy interventions and programmes including: (i) Creating a consolidated
land registry that allows for idle and under-used lands to be utilised; (ii) Developing an
agricultural land use master plan for more efficient utilisation of all forms of land; and (iii)
Investing in institutions and infrastructure that will link farmers to credit and markets (also
addressed in the Wholesale and Retail section).

In order to realise the full potential of ASAL, the following four specific strategies will be
implemented:

i. Investing in targeted rangeland developments, such as water provision,
infrastructure, pasture, fodder and veterinary services;

ii. Establishing strategically-located Disease-Free Zones to increase livestock
productivity and quality;

iii. Unifying the efforts of different ministries and other stakeholders (e.g. Regional
Development Authorities, The Ministry of Water, and the Office of the President)
for coordinated development of the region; and

iv. Putting more land under cultivation, especially in Tana and Athi basins (Figure
3.3.17).


Page 60

Figure 3.3.17: Agriculture in ASAL areas

Source: Ministry of Agriculture;

84

16

Arid and
semi-arid

High- and
medium-
potential

Even if only 1.2 million of
the potential 9.2 million
irrigable hectares are used,
agricultural production in
ASAL areas could be
increased significantly.

Land types
%

Agricultural potential in Arid and
Semi-Arid Lands
%

19

31

50

Potential for
cropland if
irrigated

Livestock
keeping

Nomadic
pastoralism

100% = 57.6 million hectares 100% = 48.4 million hectares


Flagship projects and key initiatives
In order to realise the five-year goals for agriculture, six flagship projects and nine key
initiatives will be implemented across four of the five key strategic thrusts of the sector
(productivity, land use, ASALs and institutional reform). The fifth strategic thrust, involving
improving access to markets, is addressed in the wholesale and retail section of the report.
The six flagship projects to be implemented in the agricultural sector are:


1. Enactment of the Consolidated Agricultural Reform Bill: As discussed earlier,
significant changes will be effected in the institutional framework that governs the
agriculture sector. The first step in the reform process will involve the passage of a
bill that will consolidate the various laws governing the sector. This bill will provide
the necessary legal framework to enable the other transformations in agriculture to
take place.

2. Fertilizer cost-reduction investment: This project will be implemented through a
three-tiered fertilizer cost-reduction programme involving purchasing and supply
chain improvements in the market for this input and the blending and local
manufacturing of fertilizer. Due to the high cost of fertilizer, its adoption rate by
smallholders is quite low, leading to poor yields. To reduce fertilizer costs, measures
will be implemented to strengthen the negotiating and purchasing capacity of farmers
and to improve the fertilizer supply chain throughout the country. Producer
organizations will be encouraged to pool their resources and purchase fertilizer in
bulk in order to benefit from economies of scale. In the longer term, the aim is to
increase the mix of fertilizer blended locally as a means of not only providing
employment, but also of reducing costs further. In addition, this capacity building
effort will enable the country to begin exporting blended fertilizers. Eventually, the
country will acquire the capacity to produce sufficient fertilizers locally to serve
domestic and regional markets.


Page 61


3. Disease-Free Zones: The Government will establish at least four Disease-Free Zones

including in the ASAL regions. The performance of the livestock sector has been
below potential because of limited investments in past decades. To revive the sector
and turn Kenya into an exporter of high-quality beef and other livestock products,
targeted livestock development programmes will be implemented revolving around a
series of strategically-placed Disease-Free Zones. A nationwide livestock census will
be undertaken to facilitate the selection and location of the Disease-Free Zones.
Within the zones, abattoirs and storage facilities will be established. The facilities will
include a tannery to begin the process of formalisation and of the leather sector, and
to stimulate its growth.


4. Land registry: A land registry, which is easily accessible to the general public, will be

established. This flagship project will make land registration easier and will involve
updating the existing registration database.


5. Land use master plan: The land registry will be used to develop an agricultural land

use master plan.


6. ASAL development project: This flagship project will initially be implemented in the
Tana River Basin scheme.


Figure 3.3.18: Flagship projects for the agriculture sector over the next 5 years

Vision 2030
Innovative and commercially - oriented modern

agriculture

Institutional reform
• Transform key institutions into complementary and high-performing entities that enable private-sector

agricultural growth

Increased productivity
• Increase productivity of

crops and livestock

Transform land use structure
• Better utilisation of high- and

medium-potential lands

Prepare new lands for cultivation
• Strategically develop irrigable

areas in Arid and Semi-Arid
Lands (ASAL) for crop and
livestock production

Increase access to markets
• Improve market access to smallholders by establishing aggregators

Passage of consolidated agricultural reform bill2.1.Flagship
projects

Strategic thrusts

• Develop and begin implementation
of 3-tiered fertiliser cost-reduction
programme – purchasing and supply
chain improvements, blending and
manufacturing

• Create publicly accessible
land registry

• Tana River Basin
development scheme

• Using land registry, develop
agriculture land use master plan2.5.

2.6.2.2. 2.4.

• Plan and implement 4–5 Disease
Free Zones and livestock
processing facilities

2.3.


Source: Vision 2030, Research Teams
Key initiatives will be undertaken in the following areas to support the flagship projects:

1. Agricultural R&D: There is need for enhanced collaboration and coordination among
the existing agricultural research institutions in the country to improve their effectiveness. An
initiative to coordinate and promote this greater collaboration will be implemented. The
initiative will involve enhancing human, technological and financial capacities of the


Page 62

institutions, creating better oversight of their research activities, and establishing stronger
linkages between the research institutions and farmers.

2. Extension services: A new agricultural extension policy will be implemented. The
policy will provide a holistic approach that will encourage the involvement of the private
sector, NGOs, CBOs, farmers’ associations and other stakeholders in the provision of
extension services.

3. Parastatals and producer organisations: Initiatives in this area will upgrade
performance of agricultural parastatals and make them more accountable to farmers. Where
appropriate, these parastatals will be prepared for privatisation with the participation of
farmers. Measures will be implemented to increase farmers’ voice and participation in the
management of producer organisations. The Government will continue to play a regulatory
role in the sector, including incubating producer organisations involved in emerging
agricultural commodities until they are ready to be spun off as independent organisations.

4. The cooperative sector: Institutions in the cooperative movement will continue to
play a vital role in the upgrading of the performance of the agricultural sector. Action will be
taken to improve their technical and management capacity for better performance.

Other initiatives will involve strengthening the performance of the agricultural sector in the
areas of strategic investments, export and marketing promotion, irrigation technologies, seed
quality improvement, livestock development, and utilisation of idle land, particularly in
ASAL areas.

Figure 3.3.19: Key initiatives for the agriculture sector over the next 5 years

Strategic
thrusts

• Develop plan for development
of identified idle and under-
utilised lands
– Target unused lands for

particular crops
– Identify non-disruptive

incentives to encourage
cultivation of idle lands

• Test, promote and distribute low-
cost irrigation technology;
incentives for estate investment in
efficient irrigation technologies

• Livestock initiative
– Complete livestock census &

branding
– Improve breeding programmes
– Commercialise animal feeds
– Establish DFZs and processing

facilities

• Long-term ASAL development
strategy

• Seed improvement initiative
– Increase competition
– Commercialise hybrids seeds
– Launch farm-level seed

selection initiative

Vision 2030
Innovative and commercially oriented modern agriculture

Key
initiatives

Increased productivity
• Increase productivity of

crops and livestock

Transform land use
structure
• Better utilisation of high and

medium-potential lands

Prepare new lands for cultivation
• Strategically develop areas of

Arid and Semi-Arid Lands
(ASAL) for both crops and
intensified livestock

Increase access to markets
• Improve market access to small holders by establishing aggregators

Institutional reform
• Transform key institutions into complementary and high-performing entities that enable private-sector

agricultural growth

2.6.

2.7.

• Transform government-funded
R&D

• Privatise producer organisations
and incubate organisations for
orphaned or emerging crops

• Improve agricultural extension
and information provision and
diffusion

• Reorganize agriculture investment
and export promotion agencies

2.1.

2.2. 2.4.

2.3.

2.9.2.5. 2.8.


Source: Vision 2030, Research Teams


Page 63

3.4 Wholesale and Retail Trade

Introduction
Wholesale and retail trade will be one of the key sectors in the economic development of
Kenya. This is because the sector is the link between production and consumption, both of
which are expected to expand substantially as the economy heads to a 10 per cent growth
rate. Informal and formal trade in Kenya accounts for approximately 10 per cent of GDP and
10 per cent of formal employment. It has been among the most rapidly-expanding sectors of
the economy since the introduction of trade liberalization in the 1990s and after. Most of the
employment in trade is found in the informal sector. However, formal wholesale and retail
trade tends to be more efficient and to provide more permanent high quality jobs, which is
what most Kenyan job seekers require. Kenya’s challenge in future therefore to mainstream
the informal sector into the formal sector by providing it with the support it currently lacks:
secure business location, credit, training, and access to markets. All that will bring it closer
to the formal sector and ultimately into regional and global markets. , However, the trade
sector in Kenya as a whole is characterised by inefficiencies along the supply chain from
producer to consumer, and from the importer to the final buyer. With improved efficiency
and rising productivity, wholesale and retail trade has great potential to benefit both
producers and consumers and to improve the distribution of local and imported goods.
Provided it is streamlined, wholesale and retail trade has the potential to lower the cost to
consumers and to intermediate producers.

For all these reasons, the Government will pay special attention to the development of more
efficient wholesale and retail trade by streamlining the supply chain and by improving the
quality of goods coming into the Kenyan market. This could also provide incentives for
entrepreneurs to invest in storage facilities and processing, especially for perishable farm
products, thereby eliminating price fluctuations resulting from surpluses or shortages of farm
goods due to seasonal factors. This will also provide a solution to the problem facing many
small-scale farmers, who take their goods to the market in periods of excess production but
are unable to dispose of them, thereby incurring heavy losses. For consumers, organised
markets will provide substantial benefits, which include better quality products and stable
prices. Organised wholesale trade will also make it possible for producers in one locality to
establish market linkages outside their local areas.

Situation Analysis
The wholesale and retail sector in Kenya is predominantly informal. It is characterised by
many informal players, a large number of medium-scale retailers, and a few large
supermarket chains located mainly in urban areas. As shown on Figure 3.4.1, the informal
retail sub-sector is dominated by trade of agricultural perishable goods, which are primarily
produced by smallholders throughout the country. By and large, the retailers and informal
operators do not pay income taxes, other than the unavoidable local authority licence fees,
mainly because they do not meet the threshold income level required for payment of income
tax. Such tax is also difficult to collect from widely dispersed informal traders.


Page 64

Figure 3.4.1: Structure of Kenya’s wholesale and retail sector

Key players Industry characteristics

• 3 large national retailers (Nakumatt,
Uchumi, Tuskys);

• Many small to medium regional/city
wholesalers and retailers with a few
stores each

• Many individual wholesalers and
retailers in each town/city

• A few large domestic retailers with
approx. 30% market share and
streamlined supply chains

• Majority of market is fragmented
across many suppliers

• Prices are slightly higher at large
stores, but consumers are willing to
pay for quality and the experience

Formal
wholesalers and
retailers

• Millions of individuals who sell goods
on the street

• Large number of hawkers all selling
the same product resulting in very low
profits

• Prices are usually negotiable typically
resulting in low prices overall, but
quality tends to be low

• No taxes provides a buffer for
hawkers to under-price

Hawkers –
informal

• Millions of micro enterprises either
operating in markets or in make-shift
kiosks

• About 30 markets in Nairobi with
approx. 9,000 stalls

• Similar as hawkers segment (see
below), however MSEs in markets
pay certain fees and receive some
benefits such as infrastructure and
security

• Typically low price, but better quality
than hawkers

Micro small
enterprises –
informal

Source: National MSE Baseline Survey 2006; interviews

As shown in figure 3.4.2, the high level of informality in Kenya’s wholesale and retail sector
has the potential to result in several kinds of market distortions, particularly those relating to
taxation, labour employment and produce marketing. Informality also leads to lower tax
revenues to Government from a sector that uses public services and facilities. Moreover,
although the informal sector is the source of livelihood for many people who cannot access
the formal employment market, the sector, when unregulated, comes with other social and
environmental costs, such as environmental degradation, non-enforcement of health
standards and infringement of copyright laws (e.g. in music and film industries). All these
costs are bound to have a negative impact on Kenya’s international competitiveness, which is
a major goal of Vision 2030.


Page 65

Figure 3.4.2: Informality distortions in wholesale and retail trade

Description Negative impact on economy

Tax related

• Difficulties in tax collection of
VAT, import duties, excise
and income taxes

• Allows informal and less productive players to
gain abnormal share of the market, and limits
government revenue

• Discourages investment from large players
given the uneven playfield, and informal players
due to fear of being detected

• Difficulties in enforcement of
social security obligations
and minimum wage
payments

• Evasion of social security obligations allows
informal construction companies to enjoy cost
advantages and grow more than formal
companies

• Discourages investment from more productive
formal companies

Labour-
market related

• Difficulties in enforcement of
minimum product quality
requirements, property rights
and security/ environment
standards

• Presence of substandard goods in the market
• Violation of property rights (e.g. copyright

violations)
• Environmental degradation (e.g. poor disposal

of plastic bags)

Product-
market related


Source: Vision 2030, Research Teams, 2007

Figure 3.4.3 provides an illustration of potential inefficiencies in the supply chain of Kenya’s
wholesale and retail trade sector, particularly in the food category. Although relatively well-
organised in some categories (e.g. beverages), major distribution problems exist for many
other major categories (e.g. fruits and vegetables) arising from the structural problems
throughout the supply chain. Typically, these supply chains are highly fragmented and
involve millions of small producers and arbitrage traders. The chain is characterised by poor
forward and backward linkages, and significant wastage (between 30-40 per cent) arising
from spoiled goods, as well as from low productivity activities.


Page 66

Figure 3.4.3: Selected supply chain constraints in the informal retail trade


One of the problems facing consumers in the sector is that prices in formal retail outlets tend
to be higher than those in the informal sector. Supermarkets currently control approximately
5 per cent of the retail sector business. In addition to supply-side challenges contributing to
low formal market shares, the demand side is also a major driver of the sector, given low
income levels in the country. Lower prices in informal markets make it much more attractive
for consumers to purchase their products there. Even the highest income earners spend a
larger portion of their household expenditure budget in the informal sector. As incomes rise
under Vision 2030, it is anticipated that consumers will spend more of their income in the
formal retail sector, thereby bringing down unit costs and forcing retailers to set more
competitive prices.

Challenges and opportunities
In order to ensure the competitiveness of Kenya’s wholesale and retail sector, a number of
challenges must be addressed. However, there are also many opportunities that could be
exploited in the current system. This will be necessary in order to achieve the goals specified
for this sector under Vision 2030.


• Improvement in supply chain: There will be a need to address the current
fragmentation from producers to distributor and consumer outlets. The Government
will enhance the forward and backward linkages in the sector to reduce wastage,
particularly of agricultural perishable goods between the farm gate and the consumer.
In addition, measures will be implemented to enhance the predictability of output

Category Supply chain structure

• Very fragmented supplier base
• Many retailers get supply directly from farmers causing

significant transportation and coordination problems

Fruits and
vegetables

Meat and
poultry

• Few suppliers for packaged meats with regional/
national reach; In the case of poultry, most retailers get
supply directly from farmers or small wholesalers

Milk and dairy
• About 5 major suppliers with regional/national reach;

most local distributors obtain milk directly from farmers

Beverages
• Branded beverages (e.g., soft drinks) have relatively

well organized distribution systems

Consumer
goods

• Organized, tiered distribution structure, especially for
brands; mostly managed by producers

Apparel
• Import large amounts of new and second -hand

garments
• Many small suppliers

Electronics
• Predominantly imported goods with about 2

intermediaries (importer and wholesaler) between
producer and retailer; well organized

Source: Source: Vision 2030, Research Teams, 2007

• Too many small food
suppliers that
operate at sub -scale
levels resulting in
significant
wastages and
low productivity

• Beverages and
consumer goods,
especially brands
have well organized
distribution systems

• Not enough large
wholesalers with
regional or large
reach


Page 67

delivery by the producer to the trader and ultimately to the consumer. This
strengthening of the chain between the producer and the trader, and between the
trader and the consumer, will have an effect on improving efficiency in the entire
chain. It will also assist in improving the standards of the products delivered to the
market, and thus increase the competitiveness of the country.


• Promotion of producer-based groups or associations: In order to address the

problems of fragmentation and informality that currently exist in the sector, the
Government will encourage linkages between the formal market operators e.g.
supermarkets and formal associations of primary producers. These producer groups
will be organised to comprise individual producers in a given locality, with their
membership being based solely on the capability to deliver the agreed products to
buyers. While these groups could be based on the existing producer cooperatives, it
may be necessary to form groups that bring farmers who are not necessarily involved
in the production of cash crops that form the basis of the existing cooperatives. This
integration is necessary to avoid the problem of exclusion that currently exists with
cash crop cooperative societies.


It will further be necessary for the central Government, in conjunction with local
authorities, to identify areas of high potential in retailing and wholesaling and to
identify trade partners. The main objective of this initiative will be to integrate small
traders while creating possibilities of economies of scale. The initiative will be
designed in such a way as not to disrupt current retail operations, but to support them
by avoiding price fluctuations, product wastage and distribution bottlenecks.


• Improving the business environment: The Government will accelerate the ongoing

efforts to remove barriers to trade in order to lower the cost of doing business in the
country. This initiative will reduce multiple licences, curb insecurity, address entry
barriers to wholesaling and retailing, and improve economic infrastructure. With
reliable and efficient infrastructure, it will be possible to attract domestic and foreign
investments into these sectors.


Goals for 2030
Kenya’s 2030 vision for the wholesale and retail sectors is to “move towards a formal sector
that is efficient, multi-tiered, diversified in product range, and innovative”. This vision will
be realised by:


• Strengthening the capacity of informal retail sector operators (including jua kali
operators) so that they can gradually become integrated into the formal sector and can
grow into sustainable small- and medium-sized size businesses. This will be done
through security of tenure, training, research and development programmes, credit
extensions and linkages with local and international markets;

• Strengthening wholesale and retail activities through an improved business
environment, provision of quality infrastructure, and certification of products; and

• Establishing a duty-free zone to create a business hub for the Eastern Africa region
and to take advantage of Kenya’s geographical position; “to bring Dubai to Kenya”.


Strategies to deliver on 2012 goals


Page 68

As part of the implementation of Vision 2030, the following strategies have been set for the
period 2008-2012:

Supply chain
The key objective is to improve efficiency by reducing the number of players between the
producer and the consumer. The Government will encourage the development of formal
linkages between consumer outlets and local producers groups. As part of this effort, the
Government will assist producers to improve their products. This will involve different forms
of aggregation of individual producers (including existing cooperatives), but also formation
of new producer groups. These groups will, in turn, supply goods to market outlets either
directly or indirectly through intermediaries contracted by supermarkets or other retailers. In
addition to improving the quality of the products by reducing the informal handling of goods,
and by enforcing quality control standards, this initiative will enable primary producers to
increase their earnings because it will reduce the number of intermediaries. The initiative will
further enable consumers to benefit from lower prices and higher product quality.

Small-operator retail markets
The objective of this strategy is to create organised market outlets for small scale operators
who will graduate from the informal sector. For the lower category of market outlets, the
Government will, in conjunction with local authorities, identify appropriate market locations
suitable for development by the private sector. These market facilities will be based in areas
of high population density.

Expanding formal market outreach
The overall strategy is to increase formal market share in the country by encouraging more
investment in retail trade. This will be done through the following measures:


• Creating a duty free port: To take advantage of the large market in Kenya and in the
region, in which consumer needs have in the past been met by traders who had to
travel to duty-free ports in the Middle East and East Asia to purchase goods, Kenya
will build a duty-free port in the most suitable location in partnership with private
investors. The construction and operation of the facility will be guided by
international best practices;


• Developing an outreach programme to expand retail trade: There is considerable

potential for expanding formal retail trade in the country, particularly at our airports
and in planned resort cities. The Government will encourage local and foreign
entrepreneurs to invest in areas with the highest potential for wholesaling and
retailing; and


• Developing training programmes to improve retail skills: Kenya has made significant

progress in training and providing extension services to producers of agricultural
commodities. However, little attention has been given to developing marketing
capacity, particularly among retail traders. As a result, many operators in the country
have had no formal training in management and marketing strategies. To address this
imbalance, training programmes will be developed and implemented through the
school education system to inculcate skills in the area of retail trade, as well as in
post- school business colleges.


Page 69


To achieve the goals set for 2012, the following two initiatives will be put in place:

• Extending access to information on markets trends through enhanced use of
electronic communication media, particularly the Internet and mobile phones. This
will require expediting of the ongoing efforts to build digital villages, and
investments in telecommunication infrastructure, including fibre optic cables, and
creating awareness about the use of these facilities; and


• Creating an enabling environment along the lines of the ongoing reform efforts.


Page 70

3.5 Manufacturing

Introduction
The manufacturing sector in Kenya dates back to the end of World War II. The sector is
expected to play a critical role in propelling the economy a 10 per cent growth rate,, in line
with the aspirations of Vision 2030 and in supporting the country’s social development
agenda through the creation of jobs, the generation of foreign exchange, and by attracting
foreign direct investment. To meet those goals, the sector has to become more efficiency-
driven, raising productivity per unit of input (especially of labour and capital) closer to those
of Kenya’s external competitors. In turn, the Government will continue its reform
programme to give the country an internationally co9mpetitive business environment. This
sector will therefore be expected to use state-of-the-art technology that is both efficient and
environmentally-friendly in an effort to make Kenya a dynamic industrial nation.

The sector, whose current contribution to GDP is 10 per cent and which recorded a growth of
6.9 per cent in value addition, is expected to register a growth of 10 by selling to per cent that
is driven by local, regional and global markets. The sector must, however, surmount some
challenges, including high fuel prices, exchange rate risks and inadequate and unreliable
power supply. Vision 2030 envisages that special economic clusters and small- and medium-
enterprise parks will serve as “seed beds” of Kenya’s industrial take-off. In the long run, the
nation is expected to skip the “smoke stacks” associated with rapid industrialisation and
move up the value chain once the more basic industrial infrastructure has been developed.
The manufacturing sector will play a vital role in boosting growth in agriculture by
stimulating agro-processing activities. The barriers that have hampered the expansion and
modernisation of this sector will be addressed to make the manufacturing industry more
competitive both at the regional and global levels.

Situation Analysis
Manufacturing makes an important contribution to the Kenyan economy and currently
employs 254,000 people, which represents 13 per cent of total employment. An additional
1.4 million people are employed in the informal side of the industry. The sector is highly
fragmented with more than 2,000 manufacturing units. The manufacturing sector is divided
into several broad sub-sectors, as shown in figure 3.5.1. The top three manufacturing sub-
sectors account for 50 per cent of the sector GDP, 50 per cent of exports, and 60 per cent of
formal employment. Nearly 50 per cent of manufacturing firms in Kenya employ 50 workers
or less. Most manufacturing firms are family-owned and operated. In addition, the bulk of
Kenya’s manufactured goods (95 per cent) are basic products such as food, beverages,
building materials and basic chemicals. Only 5 per cent of manufactured items, such as
pharmaceuticals, are in skill-intensive activities.

Locally-manufactured goods comprise 25 percent of Kenya’s exports. However, the share of
Kenyan products in the regional market is only seven per cent of the US $11 billion regional
market. The Eastern African market is dominated by imports from outside the region. This is
an indication that there is a large potential to improve Kenya’s competitiveness in the region
by replacing external suppliers gradually. However, even within the country, manufacturing
has been on the decline for a considerable period of time and its contribution to the GDP has
remained stagnant at about 10 per cent since the 1960s.


Page 71

Figure 3.5.1: Kenya: Manufacturing sub-sectors in 2005

Food processing,
beverages and tobacco

Refined petroleum
products

Textiles, apparel,
leather and footwear

Forest products

Chemicals

Equipment

Fabricated metals

Rubber and plastics

Publishing
and printing

Furniture

Other

GDP
KSh billions (value and
percentage of sector)

Export
KSh billions (value and
percentage of sector)

Employment
Thousands of employees (no.
and percentage of sector)

43.1 (29)

16.8 (11)

9.3 (7)

7.8 (5)

7.7 (5)

6.6 (4)

6.3 (4)

4.9 (3)

4.3 (3)

2.0 (1)

41.5 (28)

13.0 (25)

7.6 (15)

6.3 (12)

3.8 (7)

25.4 (22)

3.6 (7)

1.2 (2)

0 (0)

1.1(2)

0 (0)

3.9 (8)

85.3 (35)

0.2 (0.1)

61.3 (25)

18.1 (7)

15.0 (6)

11.7 (5)

19.4 (8)

10.5 (4)

8.6 (4)

9.6 (4)

7.8 (3)

Source: Central Bureau of Statistics 2006

Although the
sector is
fragmented, the
top 3 sub-sectors
account for ~50%
of GDP and
exports and 60%
of formal
employment


Opportunities and challenges
Despite a long tradition of manufacturing in Kenya dating back to World War II, continued
decline in investment and overall lack of competitiveness have made it difficult for the sector
to play a larger role in the economy. As a result, many manufacturing companies in Kenya
have struggled to thrive and some key players have moved their operations to other countries.
The following four factors have contributed to the lack of competitiveness in the sector:


• High input costs: Expensive and often low-quality raw materials, rising labour costs,
unreliable and expensive energy (e.g. US$0.15c/Kwh in Kenya versus US$
0.07c/Kwh in China and US$0.04c/Kwh in South Africa) have led to high costs of
production. Poor infrastructure and inadequate services, such as water and other input
supplies, have also contributed to the high cost of local manufacturing.


• Low productivity levels: Capital productivity in the Kenyan manufacturing sector is

particularly low, compared to regional and global productivity levels. For example,
productivity is up to 3–4 times lower than that of comparable Indian firms. This has
been occasioned by declining capital investment levels from 30 per cent of GDP in
the 1980s to below 15 per cent in the late 1990s. Over the past 15 years, gross
investment in plants and equipment as a proportion of replacement value has been
less than 5 per cent for 70 per cent of the manufacturers. Low investment levels have
resulted from high levels of uncertainty in the business climate, diminished expected
returns on investment due to high costs, and lack of long-term financing. Although
Kenya’s labour productivity is comparable to that of India and China, there is


Page 72

significant room for improvement, particularly among small- and medium-sized
enterprises.


• Inefficient flows of goods and services: Inefficiency in the local transport and logistics

sector (e.g. port, rail and road transport services), greatly hampers the ability of local
manufacturers to access and be competitive in regional and global markets.


• Unfavourable business environment: The unfavourable business environment arises

from heavy regulation, weak trade agreements, lack of rigorous legal enforcement,
incidences of insecurity, as well as limited access to capital.


In addition, heavy regulation has led to complex and sometimes overlapping business and
investment registration, affecting both the ease and the cost of doing business in the sector
(e.g. Kenya issues hundreds of business-related licences). Weak negotiating capability
impedes the country’s ability to negotiate for favourable trade agreements and therefore
creates barriers against Kenyan companies. Weak enforcement of standards and of tax laws
has led to dumping of sub-standard imports and counterfeit goods into the domestic market,
making it unfavourable for local manufacturers to compete.

Figure 3.5.2: Competitiveness indicators of manufacturing in selected countries

Source: KIPPRA; World Bank Investment Climate Assessment for Kenya 2003; Kenya competitiveness 2006; Central Bureau of Statistics; ILO

Labour cost Energy Transport

Taxation Manufacturing productivity

Monthly earnings of unskilled production
workers
US$

Costs to import 20 ft. container
US$

Total tax rate
% of profit

Energy costs
US cents per KWh

Manufacturing GDP per employee
$US

575250

85
99

Kenya
2003

China
2000

India
1999

Tan-
zania
2002

Uganda
2003

5 200

India
2002

6 358

Kenya
2005

7 384

China
1999

56 413

Germany
2003

0.040
0.0640.0700.0700.075

0.150

Kenya Mexico Taiwan China Colo-
mbia

South
Africa

24.832.2
45.0

74.277.1
81.1

India China Kenya Tan-
zania

Ugan-
da

Maur-
itius

Transport

Costs to export 20 ft. container
US$

0.4
0.9

2.9
2.32.2

Russia Kenya Uganda Tan-
zania

China

0.3
0.8

1.1

2.0
2.2

Russia Kenya Uganda Tan-
zania

China


Vision for the manufacturing sector
The vision for the manufacturing sector is the development of “robust, diversified and
competitive manufacturing”. This will be achieved by focusing on three strategic thrusts: (i)
Local production; (ii) Regional market expansion; and (iii) Global market niche.

Goals for 2012


Page 73

The overall goal for the sector over the next five years will be to increase its contribution to
GDP by at least 10 per cent per annum. To realise this growth rate, the following specific
goals will be pursued:

• Strengthening local production capacity to increase domestically-manufactured goods
by focusing on improving the sector’s productivity;

• Raising the share of Kenyan products in the regional market from 7 to 15 per cent;
and

• Developing niche products through which Kenya can achieve a global competitive
advantage.


Strategies to deliver on 2012 goals
To achieve the five-year goal of increasing the manufacturing sector growth rate by 10 per
cent, the following specific strategies will be implemented.

Strengthening local production capacity
Efforts will be taken to scale up operations of Kenyan firms by encouraging consolidation
and by establishing special zones and parks for better targeting of services to export-oriented
firms within the parks. In addition, development of various industrial clusters will be
promoted. The target is to increase productivity and competitiveness in the entire
manufacturing sector.

Raising the share of Kenyan products in the regional market
Kenya currently claims only 7 per cent of the market share of the regional market for
manufactured goods. The aim is to raise the Kenyan market share to 15 per cent by 2012
through increased capacity utilisation and elimination of impediments to Kenya’s
competitiveness in the region.

Developing niche products
Kenya’s potential competitive advantage in manufacturing lies in agro-industrial exports. To
compete globally in this sector, the country will increase the capacity of value addition in
agro-based industries. This will be done by attracting strategic investors to boost agro-based
industries and increased exports, especially in new markets. The investors will be offered
attractive incentives and will be expected to bring new skills and technologies to the
domestic economy.

In addition, five cross-cutting strategies will be critical for superior performance of the
manufacturing sector as a whole, including:

• Strengthening SMEs to become the key industries of tomorrow by improving their
productivity and innovation;

• Boosting science, technology and innovation in the sector by increasing investment in
R&D;

• Improving critical infrastructure, such as ports, energy distribution systems, rail and
major highways;

• Improving the business environment in critical areas, such as licensing and security;
and

• Implementing efficiency-enhancing institutional reforms in the sector (Figure 3.5.3).


Page 74

Figure 3.5.3: The vision for the manufacturing sector and strategic thrusts

Vision for 2030
Robust, diversified and competitive manufacturing

• Reduce imports in key local
industries by 25%

Strategic thrusts Strengthening local
Production

Regional market expansion Global market niche

• Increase competitiveness of
targeted local industries via
increased productivity,
consolidation

• Defend key local industries
against counterfeit and dumped
goods

• Increase competitiveness of
selected regional exports
through development of special
economic clusters and
consolidation.

• Improve regional collaboration
and cooperation

• Focus on value addition in agro-
processing

• Secure strategic partnerships for
key agro-processed goods

• Negotiate trade agreements to
stimulate exports to key markets

• Increase competitiveness – through
targeted incentives (e.g. special
economic zones).

• Grow market share in selected
products for the regional market
from 7% to 15%

• Attract at least 10 large
strategic investors in key agro-
processing industries

Strategy

• Strengthen business environment (e.g., licensing, investment climate)
• Improve critical infrastructure to increase market access (e.g., port, energy, key roads, rail)
• Build knowledge, technology and innovation through training and R&D
• Strengthen SMEs to become the key industries of tomorrow through productivityand innovations

• Drive critical institutional reforms in the sector (e.g., Ministry of Trade and Industry, R&D institutions)

Overall

Specific

G
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fo

r
20

12

To add an additional ~KSh25billion to GDP


Flagship projects and key initiatives
To realise the goals of the manufacturing sector, two flagship projects and eight initiatives
will be implemented. The two flagship projects are:


1. Development of industrial and manufacturing zones: Different regions of the country
are suitable for different types of industrial and manufacturing activities. In order to
harness the resources available in different parts of the country, region-specific
industrial and manufacturing clusters will be promoted. Necessary infrastructure and
services will be provided to stimulate the development of these clusters (Figure
3.5.4). An initial pilot site will be set up in Mombasa to allow for easy importation of
necessary raw materials and exporting of finished goods. The project could include an
agro-industrial zone incorporating activities such as blending and packaging of
fertilizers, teas and coffees, and a consolidated meat and fish processing facility to
encourage growth of offshore fishing. Similar industrial and manufacturing clusters
will be established across the country based on regional resource endowments.


Page 75

Figure 3.5.4: Suggested regional industrial and manufacturing clusters

Roads
Rivers
Lakes

Cities

Mombasa

Nairobi

Eldoret

Machakos

Meru
Nakuru

Kenya

Uganda

Tanzania

Somalia

INDIAN OCEAN

Ethiopia

Meat processing facility
(with tannery)

Kisumu

Symbols Key

Disease Free Zone

Special Economic Cluster for
agro-processing

Special Economic Cluster for
agricultural input production
with research park

New horticulture

This cluster will include
packaging tea and coffee
for global markets

Sudan

Fruit juice

Vegetables

Fish processing


2. Development of SME parks: At least five small- and medium-enterprise (SME)
industrial parks in key urban centres will be developed. Local authorities will play a
critical role in developing these parks. This will include provision of relevant
infrastructure and services to make them attractive. Figure 3.5.5 shows the proposed
locations for the SME parks and special economic zones (SEZs).


Page 76


Figure 3.5.5: Expected location of SME parks and Special Economic Zones

Mombasa

Nairobi

Eldoret

Machakos

Meru
Nakuru

Uganda

Tanzania

Somalia

INDIAN OCEAN

Sudan

Second SEC proposed for
Kisumu because of access to
regional markets and availability
of limestone to support cement,
chemicals, and metals
industries; also potential for
agro-processing through
increased horticultural
production along lakeshore

Pilot metals SME park
proposed for Nairobi
because of proximity to
most important market

Ethiopia

4.9.

4.9.4.1.

4.1.

4.1.

4.2.

4.2.

Symbols key

Flagship pilot

Flagship validation

Flagship confirmation

Key initiatives

Kisumu

Pilot agro-processing
SME park proposed for
Eldoret because of
location in high-potential
agricultural area and
access to an airport

Proposed location of
second agro-processing
SME park with targeted
processing of fruit juices
and vegetable oils

4.2.

4.2.

Pilot Site: Proposed
location of pilot SEC
because of access to
the port for easy
import of necessary
raw materials and
exports of finished
goods

Roads
Rivers
Lakes

Cities

New Road Needed

Proposed future
SEC if concept
proves successful

Proposed multi-
industry SME park
when approach is
validated

NB; Other SECs will be established
in different parts of the country to

exploit local resources


In addition to the two flagship projects, a number of initiatives will be implemented
including: reform of industry structure; strengthening negotiation capacity and the building
of strong trade agreements; strengthening import regulations; encouraging domestic and
foreign investors in clusters; promotion of science, technology and innovation; improvement
of critical infrastructure; and improvement of the business environment.

Figure 3.5.6: Flagship projects and key initiatives for the period 2008-2012

Vision 2030
Robust, competitive and competitive manufacturing

• Develop concept, pilot, and create at least 5 small & medium enterprise (SME) industrial parks

Strategic thrusts

Flagships
projects

Local production
• Restructure key local industries to

effectively compete against imports

Regional domination
• Exploit “last-step value-addition”

opportunities to capture a larger
share of the regional market

Global niche
• Strategically drive increased level of

value addition in niche exports for
the global market

• Drive for consolidation of key industries to ensure competitiveness

• Take better advantage of regional trading opportunities
through more strategic negotiation (e.g., COMESA,
EAC)

• Secure strategic partnerships for
key agro-processed goods

• Develop concept, pilot, and launch at least 2 special economic clusters (SECs) (e.g., focus on industries, target
players)

Key initiatives

• Develop plan and approach to
protect against key imports (e.g.,
counterfeit and second-hand
goods)

• Negotiate Bilateral Trade
Agreements to stimulate exports
to key markets (e.g., South
Africa)

• Strengthen business environment (e.g., licensing, investment climate)

• Improve critical infrastructure to increase market access and reduce cost of doing business (e.g., port, energy, key
roads, rail)

• Build knowledge, technology and innovation (e.g., training, R&D)


Page 77

3.6 Business Process Outsourcing/Offshoring

Overview of the BPO sector
The Business Process Outsourcing and Offshoring (BPO) sector in Kenya is a small and new
part of the economy, accounting for less than 0.01 per cent of GDP, with 500 seats and 1,000
employees. In the BPO sector, the term “seat” refers to a dedicated “seat” within a BPO
facility. In a day, one seat can support more than one worker depending on the number of
shifts per day. The global BPO sector however is large and growing rapidly. The US$478
billion income generated in the sector in 2005 is projected to increase to US$664 billion in
2008, reflecting a Compound Average Growth Rate of 12 per cent per annum (Figure 3.6.1).
Kenya intends to take a share of that business in the next five years.

Figure 3.6.1: Size and trend of the global BPO market

Worldwide, US$ billion

Onshore Offshore

Onshore outsourcing Offshore outsourcing

Captive offshoring

O
ut

so
ur

ce
d

C
ap

tiv
e

9
14

2005
5

55–60

160–170

2008

Source: Gartner Dataquest; Aberdeen Group

250
228

478

2005

350

314

664

2008

9
6

15

2005

35–40

175–190

2008

ESTIMATES
BPO

IT

• Global BPO sector
is large and fast
growing
– ~US$250b industry

today
– Offshore projected

to grow from
US$11b in 2005 to
~US$100b by 2008

• IT outsourcing sector
larger today and
growing faster than
the BPO sector

80–90%
CAGR

12%
CAGR

80–90%
CAGR

105–110

140–150

1 2

1 Onshore refers to business offered within the country

2 offshore refers to business sourced from outside the country


The global offshore market is expected to grow from US$11 billion in 2005 to US$100
billion by 2008. Kenya will make efforts to gain a large share of this growing global BPO
market. Africa as a whole has managed to capture a mere 1–2 per cent of the BPO market
(approximately 500,000 seats) so far. In the next few years, the major competitors in this
market, namely India, China and the Philippines, will be unable to meet the expanding global
demand for labour required to produce BPO services and products. An estimated two million
workers will be needed to meet this demand by 2008. A shortage of 200,000–500,000
workers is likely to be experienced by that time, presenting business opportunities for
countries like Kenya, which are new players in this field. Local onshore outsourcing by
multinational company subsidiaries (captive firms) in Kenya is non-existent. This form of
outsourcing will be nurtured and encouraged as a source of income and employment and as a
means of technology transfer.


Page 78


Figure 3.6.2: Global demand for BPO services

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

* Assuming China is successful in its initiatives to undo talent supply constraints

Total cost
of operation
(US$/FTE/hr)

Capacity utilised
(Thousand people employed)

China*

India

Philippines

Existing preferred destination

~2 0001 600 1 800

~1 100200–500 160–
200

~500

Demand gap of
200,000–500,000
people, depending
on Chinese supply
capacity

Projected
level of
demand by
2008

• Demand gap can
further increase
if continental
Europe
offshoring
increases

• There is
significant
opportunity for
emerging BPO
players like
Kenya to exploit
demand surplus


Source: Vision 2030 Research Team, 2007

Opportunities and challenges
There are four major factors hindering the growth of the BPO sector in Kenya:


• Basic infrastructure: The high cost and unreliability of telecommunication and energy
supply, in addition to lack of dedicated BPO facilities, weaken the attractiveness of
Kenya as a primary BPO destination. Currently, data transmission costs in Kenya are
three times more expensive than those of its competitors. Concurrently, energy costs
are twice as expensive as for other BPO destinations, such as India and the
Philippines (Figure 3.6.3). The cost of communication bandwidth is expected to be
significantly reduced once the Government-sponsored under-sea fibre optic cable
(TEAMS) is completed by 2008. The costs should drop even further once more
players enter the telecommunications market.


Page 79

Figure 3.6. 3: Telecommunications band-width costs for selected countries

Country

* Based on an E1 connection (2Mbps) to the UK
Source: Ministry of information and communication, TeleGeography; World Bank;

Telecom band width cost for 2Mbps
International leased line
US$/month*

• Telecom bandwidth costs
are at least two times higher
in Kenya than other BPO
destinations and much more
unreliable given satellite
connections

4 800India

4 400Philippines

2 000Poland

7 000Morocco

15 000Kenya


• Talent pool: The size of Kenya’s talent pool is small compared to its competitors in
the BPO market (66,000 graduates in Kenya versus 461,000 in the Philippines) and
becomes even smaller for specific skills. For example, there are only 10,000
engineering and commerce graduates in Kenya versus 210,000 in the Philippines.
More importantly, Kenyan BPO operators find that all new employees require
additional training, ranging from basic BPO skills to specific functional and industry-
specific skills (Figure 3.6.4).


Page 80

Figure 3.6.4: BPO talent pool for selected countries

* Non-Kenyan figures based on Global Institute database that estimates number of graduates that could work in BPO (maybe less than total #
of grads)

** Includes biology, chemistry and pharmacology
*** Includes arts, education, law, medicine, science and agriculture

Source: Global Institute; 2006 Kenya Economic Survey and Statistical Abstract

• Kenya’s talent
pool is relatively
small

• Kenya only
graduates ~10 000
engineers and
commerce
students each year

53 55
126

114

74

156

3

15

32

266

39

95

South Africa

100

280

Poland

143

241

461

Philippines

383

Kenya

919

1 572

India

Engineering
Commerce
Life sciences**
General***

9366

Number of graduates (bachelors) in 2005/2006*
Thousands


• Local supplier base: International ICT and telecommunications firms, suppliers and

system integrators have not set up offices locally as they operate through
intermediaries. This situation leads to higher scalability and service costs. The
presence of international ICT suppliers would assure potential clients of the BPO
capacity in the country.


• Incentive framework: There are currently no BPO-specific incentives in Kenya apart

from the standard Export Processing Zone (EPZ) locations. In contrast, other globally
competitive destinations offer specific BPO-related benefits such as training cost
reimbursements, and land and building incentives.


Page 81

Figure 3.6.5: BPO-specific incentives in selected countries

Financial incentives

Tax incentives
1

Cash grants and
subsidies

2

Training reimbursements
3

Duty exemptions and
rebates

5

Land and building
incentives

4

Source: Incentives 2005/2006

Kenya Philippines

• 4–8-year tax holiday
• 5% income tax rate

after holiday

India

• VAT exemption for
local purchases

• Tax and duty
exemptions on
imported capital
equipment

• Income tax holiday till
2010

• 10-year tax holiday if
located in dedicated
zones

• US$500 per job in
Andhra Pradesh

• Reimbursement for all
training costs for first
6–12 months

• Discounts on land
prices on a case-by-
case basis (above
100% in some cases)

• VAT exemptions
• Total custom duty

exemption

South Africa

• No specific tax
incentives for BPO
companies

• Receive 10-year tax
holiday if in EPZ and
25% tax rate for next
10 years

• World Bank subsidies
on telecom costs to
begin summer 2007
(60–70% of current)

• Reimbursements
available if in EPZ, but
difficult to receive since
BPO training is not yet
recognised by
Directorate of Industrial
Training

• Discounts on rent only
if in EPZ

• No tax on inputs (e.g.,
machinery, equipment),
but on some goods
must pay first and wait
long time for
reimbursement

• Up to 50% of eligible
training costs

• Learning grant of up to
R3m

• Capital grant for
investments in training
facilities

• 15% tax rate if income
is less than R150k

• 20% straight
depreciation for
refurbishments and
20% in Year 1 + 5%
thereafter for buildings

• 2–3 cash grants of up to
R3.05m p.a.

• Up to max. 50% of the
costs, capped at
€200 000 for EU firms


Vision, goals and strategies

Vision for the BPO sector
The vision for the BPO sector in Kenya is to be “the top offshoring destination in Africa”.
The BPO sector is also expected to become the sector of choice for employment among
youth and young professionals. In this regard, Kenya will move quickly to establish the
necessary capacity in this sector, as a number of African countries have already built up
sizeable BPO capacities (Figure 3.6.6).


Page 82

Figure 3.6.6: Major global BPO players

66
6

48

2
Africa

India

32
Canada

Philippines
Ireland

Other*

1.3
Africa

India

Canada

Philippines
Ireland

Other*

Percent
Number of offshore Full Time Equivalent Employees
(FTEs) (BPO, excluding IT services)

Revenues (BPO, excluding IT services)

Number of FTEs
(2007)Countries

15 000
South Africa

Morocco

Egypt

Kenya

22 000

7 000

1 000

* Includes China, Eastern Europe, Singapore and Mexico
Source: Datamonitor (2005)

100% = 510 000 FTEs

100% = US$11.4b


To achieve the vision for the BPO sector, Kenya will pursue four major strategies:

• Focusing BPO services along geographic areas, industrial processes and different
industry segments;

• Building an IT supplier base of international repute by encouraging world-class IT
suppliers to establish offices locally;

• Attracting multinational company subsidiaries (captive firms) and foreign BPO
players to Kenya; and

• Building the capacity of local players by supporting entrepreneurs who invest in the
industry.


Goals for 2012
The overall goal for the sector over the next five years will be to create at least 7,500 direct
BPO jobs with an additional GDP contribution of KShs. 10 billion. This goal will be realised
through the creation of a BPO park that accommodates 5,000 workers and indirectly creates
at least an additional 2,500 jobs outside the park. Achieving this goal will require delivering
on specific targets within each strategic thrust:


• Focused targeting of BPO services to capture markets in English-speaking countries
with emphasis on the UK, USA and Canada. Another way of targeting will be to
focus on key processes within customer-contact and back-office operations. Once the
country is established as a major BPO player, it will pursue and compete in higher
value-added processes. A third way of targeting is investing in specific industries and
services, beginning with banking and insurance, as the two account for 50 per cent of
the market share (Figure 3.6.7).


Page 83

Figure 3.6.7: Suggested ways of segmenting BPO services

Focus areas Main targeting criteria Initial focus

Geography

• Importance of English language
• Importance of geographical proximity

(e.g., similar time zone, direct flights)
• Degree of cultural affinity/shared history

• Primarily, the UK
• Secondary target is the US followed by

Canada

Process

• Low skill (initially)
• Importance of reading, writing, and

speaking in English
• Degree of entrepreneurship

(e.g., sales) and service orientation
(Kenyan strengths)

• Initially, customer contact (mainly
outbound, collectors and
correspondence)

• Basic back-office functions like
transcription and data entry

Industry

• Size of opportunity
• Momentum/experience of current

Kenyan players
• Familiarity with industry in Kenya

• Primarily, banking and insurance
• Secondary focus includes airlines and

telecom


• Building an international IT supplier base to gain an international reputation by

attracting at least five major leading IT suppliers to establish offices locally. This will
ensure high quality services as well as give the local industry an opportunity to
acquire new technology and become globally competitive.


• Attracting at least ten large multinational company captives and global BPO players.

This will be critical to developing a robust BPO industry.


• Building at least five large indigenous BPO firms to act as local champions and help
stimulate greater interest in the sector. This can be realised through setting up BPO
firms from scratch or by establishing joint ventures with foreign BPO partners.


Strategies
To realise the five-year goal of creating at least an additional 7,500 direct BPO jobs and of
increasing its contribution to GDP by KShs10 billion, the following specific strategies will be
pursued:

Establishment of a BPO Park
The BPO sector faces major infrastructural constraints, such as weak telecommunications
infrastructure, and high cost of energy. Superior telecommunications infrastructure, easy
access to international transport facilities, and affordable and readily available energy are
critical for a competitive BPO industry. Since it will takea considerable amount of time to
provide these facilities across the entire country, there is a need to start by establishing a
state- of-the-art BPO Park where these facilities can be guaranteed.


Page 84

Marketing campaigns
Proactive promotion of BPO in the targeted geographical markets will be pursued. This will
be done through developing and launching a focused marketing programme in the UK, USA
and Canada. Further, road shows will be organised to meet with potential customers and
present the advantages of doing business with Kenya.

Training programmes
Targeted training programmes around primary processes (e.g. customer contact) and industry
specifics (e.g. back-office data entry within financial services) will be conducted to build the
required quality and size of the talent pool. The training programmes will be specific to the
level and type of skill required. To ensure the highest quality of training, mechanisms will be
developed in collaboration with public and private institutions. Education and training
strategies for Vision 2030 are covered in more detail in the section on the Social Pillar.

Incentives
A comprehensive set of incentives will be designed and implemented to improve the
attractiveness of Kenya as a BPO destination. This will be accomplished by developing
tailored incentive packages for target companies. Incentive levels will be competitive to
those offered by other countries. Furthermore, the environment of doing business will be
improved (e.g. ease of obtaining licences, filing tax returns and obtaining economic justice)
to lower transaction costs. A “one-stop shop” for all investor needs (e.g. licensing and
recruiting) will be housed within the BPO Park.

Telecommunications infrastructure
Telecommunications services and quality levels inside and outside the BPO Park will be
improved through completion of the under-sea fibre optic cable and the national fibre optic
network. This initiative will close the existing gap in telecommunications infrastructure and
costs between Kenya and her competitors. The BPO Park will provide state-of-the-art
telecommunications facilities and services.


Page 85

Figure 3.6.8: BPO vision and strategy


Vision 2030
The top BPO destination in Africa

Strategic
thrusts

Geography – Primarily the UK followed by the US and Canada
Process – Initially customer contact (mainly outbound, collections and correspondence) as well as basic back office

processes like transcription to get into the BPO industry and build credibility
Industry – Primarily banking and insurance, especially during initial years

Local champions
• Develop strong local firms through

stand-alone operations or Joint
Ventures

International IT supplier base
• Attract and develop strong base of

leading global IT suppliers
• Focus on leading brands to build

credibility of industry

MNC captives and foreign BPO
players
• Attract large multinational companies,

foreign specialists and general BPO
players

Strategy

• Attract at least 5 major leading IT
suppliers in order to their local
presence

• Attract at least 10 large MNC
captives and global BPO
players

• Target at least 5 local players to
develop as local champions
through stand-alone operations
or Joint Ventures

Marketing – Proactive and targeted promotion with a geographic focus

BPO park – Consolidate key enabling factors into a BPO park and use it as a BPO accelerating institution

Training – Targeted training programmes around primary business processes and for specific industries

Incentives – Comprehensive set of fiscal and business incentives

Telecom infrastructure – Massive reduction in telecom costs and improvement in quality levels

• Create at least 7 500 direct BPO jobs with an additional GDP contribution of ~KSh10 billionOverall

Specific

G
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01

2


Flagship projects and key initiatives
In order to realise the five-year goals for BPO, one flagship project and several initiatives
will be implemented. The flagship project entails the design and implementation of a major
BPO Park. The BPO Park will be established in or around Nairobi. In addition to this
flagship project, several initiatives will be undertaken to support the BPO Park in the areas of
marketing and promotion of Kenya’s BPO services, the design and incentive framework of
the industry, and the development of the BPO talent pool.


Page 86

Figure 3.6.9: Flagship projects and key initiatives for the BPO sector


Strategic
focus and

thrusts

• Establish one major state of the art BPO park

• Develop incentive packages for onshore and offshore clients

• Conduct pilot roadshows to refine Kenya’s BPO business attributes

• Establish a BPO talent development programme

• Develop and refine Kenya’s
BPO attributes

Flagship
project

• Establish a 3–4 member team to spearhead flagship BPO park project
Key

initiatives

Vision 2030
The top BPO destination in Africa

Geography – Primarily the UK followed by the US and Canada
Process – Initially customer contact (mainly outbound, collections and correspondence) as well as basic back-office

processes like transcription to get into the BPO industry and build credibility
Industry – Primarily banking and insurance, especially during initial years

Local championsInternational IT supplier base MNC captives and foreign BPO
players


Page 87

3.7 Financial Services

Overview
Financial services will play a critical role in the next phase of the development of our country
by providing better intermediation between savings and investments than at present. This will
assist the mobilisation of investment funds that are required to implement the projects of
Vision 2030. Kenya also intends to become the leading financial centre in Eastern and
Southern Africa, in competition with similar centres in the Western Indian Ocean rim.

The financial sector in Kenya comprises banking, insurance, capital markets and pension
funds. Other parts of the sector include quasi-banking institutions and services provided by
savings and credit cooperative organisations (SACCOs), micro-finance services, building
societies, development finance institutions (DFIs) and informal financial services. Currently,
the sector contributes about 4 per cent to GDP and provides assets equivalent to about 40 per
cent of GDP. On the whole, the sector is characterised by low penetration and limited supply
of long-term finance. However, there is considerable potential to improve the depth and
breadth of the sector to make Kenya a globally competitive financial hub, serving a large part
of the Africa region of Africa. This will involve developing a vibrant and stable financial
system to mobilise savings, and to allocate these resources more efficiently in the economy.

Situation Analysis
By international standards, the percentage of Kenyans owning bank accounts remains low.
As of 30th June 2005, there were only 2,204,000 bank accounts in Kenya from a total
population of more than 30 million. Despite remarkable progress in the last three years,
access to financial services outside the main cities still remains limited. Besides more
coverage by regular banks, addressing the issue of access will require strengthening of the
alternative financial service providers, namely: micro-finance institutions, SACCOs and
DFIs, in addition to improving investors’ access to term finance. Kenya will also take action
to enhance the use of pensions, insurance, capital and securities markets in realising the
investment goals set for Vision 2030.

One of the constraints that will have to be overcome is to lower the present interest rate
spread between lending and deposit rates. At 8.6 per cent, the spread is too high for the
purposes of mobilising savings and credit expansion. An acceptable range for interest rate
spread would be between 5 per cent and 6 per cent. Institutional reforms are needed in
several related segments, including: the commercial justice system; transparency and
efficiency in the registration of collateral; improvements in land registration and the
companies registry; and expansion of private credit reference bureaus. Completing these
reforms will make the financial system capable of competing with others in the region.

Another problem is the high level of non-performing loans (NPLs) in the overall banking
sector, even though this has fallen considerably since 2003. As of mid-2005, NPLs were at
19.3 per cent down from 46 per cent in the late 1990s. While the supervision of banks by the
Central Bank of Kenya broadly follows international norms, there are other challenges that
need to be addressed. These include inadequate provision against losses incurred from bad
loans, weak internal controls, insufficient auditing and lack of adequate anti-money
laundering legislation and enforcement. In addition, the Government’s supervisory capacity
in other financial sub-sectors (such as insurance, rural finance and microfinance institutions)


Page 88

will have to be strengthened. This also applies to SACCOs, village finance services, hire
purchase companies and DFIs. Considerable progress has already been made in this
direction. In general, the stability of the financial system needs to be enhanced through
consolidation of the oversight function of financial intermediaries, increased autonomy of
supervisory agencies, better self-regulation, staff capacity building, and improved
information technology (IT) systems for virtually all of the sector’s regulators.

Within Eastern and Central Africa, Kenya’s financial institutions have continued to offer
services, a process that is set to increase as the economies of this region grow. There is
already some cross-listing of shares, for instance, between the Nairobi, Dar es Salaam and
Kampala stock exchanges. Some Kenyan banks have also opened branches in Tanzania,
Uganda and Sudan. This is an emerging development that has much potential.

Challenges and Opportunities
Banking: Kenya has 40 banks, a number of which are considered too large for the size of the
economy: The banking sector is dominated by four or five large banks which account for the
bulk of deposits. The remaining banks are small and have limited outreach. This has reduced
competition and resulted in high credit costs. In view of this, there will be enormous
opportunities in the economy to expand banking services to parts of the population that do
not hold bank accounts, particularly in rural areas. This will provide a greater pool of savings
to finance the productive investments of the Vision. To realise that goal, it will be necessary
to address the following specific challenges:

• Establish branches in rural areas in order to reach the large section of the population
that does not currently enjoy banking services;

• Introduce a more rapid adoption of banking technology;
• Overcome administrative barriers, such as high minimum balances, which discourage

small savers; and
• Lower the high spread between interests on deposits and lending rates.


With more investment in modern electronic technology, it will be possible to considerably
reduce transaction costs and therefore eliminate the need for minimum balance requirements,
thereby expanding access. Widespread access will promote savings, lower the cost of capital
and increase the supply of investible funds. This will increase investment rates and growth
necessary to realise the goals of Vision 2030. In order to increase the capacity and efficiency
of Kenya’s banks and to reduce costs and high interest rates spreads, the Government will
encourage mergers and consolidation in the sector.


• Insurance: In 2006, the sector comprised 45 insurance companies, 199 brokers and
some 2,569 insurance agents, 209 insurance surveyors, 29 medical insurance
providers, 8 insurance loss adjusters and 1 insurance claim-settling agent. This is
considered too large a number for the size of the Kenyan economy. The industry has a
total asset value of about KSh.100 billion. This implies that the economy is under-
served, and its assets under-insured. This means that insurance services have an even
narrower penetration than banking. As the economy expands, the amount of insurable
assets will also grow; and as personal incomes rise, Kenyans will demand more
insurance. The small size of the sector, however, is facing significant institutional
handicaps in extending outreach and coverage of life and property insurance. There
will, therefore, be significant potential to strengthen the insurance industry in the


Page 89

interest of long-term savings and better coverage of risk. The challenge is to improve
the efficiency and outreach of insurance service providers. This can be achieved
through consolidation, a public education campaign and investment in new
technology.


• Pension funds: Following the introduction of the Retirement Benefits Act in the

1990s, Kenya has experienced significant growth in remittances paid to pension
funds. However, there is great potential for even more growth in this area. Pension
funds could play a particularly important role in funding long-term investment in
infrastructure and housing, as indicated elsewhere in this document. The Government
will, therefore, consult with stakeholders to develop a programme that will facilitate
further development of pension funds to finance long-term capital projects.


• Capital markets: The capital market has grown rapidly in recent years to reach the

current value of approximately 50 per cent of the GDP. However, there is still
enormous potential for further development. Among the limiting factors is the small
number of companies listed on the stock exchange, numbering 57 in 2007. This figure
has barely changed in the last five years. The market also suffers from limited long-
term financial instruments, namely Government and corporate bonds, which currently
stand at US$400 million and US$25 million, respectively. This means that there is
limited access to long-term financial instruments, which the economy will require if
the large capital projects in Vision 2030 are to be realised. There is a potential for
using capital markets to mobilise the resources to finance long-term investments in
key infrastructure (such as roads, water and energy) that will be put in action in the
2008 – 2012 period.


To promote long-term investments, particularly in infrastructure, the Government will
promote long-term marketable securities, which will be listed on the Nairobi Stock
Exchange (NSE) e.g. in the areas of infrastructure and housing bonds. It will
encourage secondary trading of such instrument to make them liquid and therefore
attractive to investors. Additional efforts will be made to encourage more companies
to be listed on the NSE and to use capital markets to raise long-term finance.
Similarly, the Government will continue to lengthen the maturity period of treasury
bonds. The law is already in place to encourage long-term securities through the
annual budget; incentives have been provided in order to encourage more listings.
The Government will consult with stakeholders and develop a strategy for facilitating
the overall deepening of capital markets.


• Quasi-banking institutions: These include micro-finance institutions, rotating savings

and credit associations (ROSCAs), SACCOs, and other informal financial services.
Given the low penetration of formal financial services, these institutions have
enormous potential to mobilise additional savings and to provide credit, especially to
sections of the population that do not use banking services and the low-income
groups. The major constraint to the growth of this sub-sector is the lack of an
effective regulatory framework, which gives rise to some incidences of poor
governance, thus lowering public confidence in these institutions. The Government
will expedite the implementation of the market finance law in order to improve the
regulatory environment.


Page 90


• Establishing Kenya as a regional financial hub: Kenya plans to become a regional

financial centre and thus position herself in competition with similar institutions in
Africa and cities in the western half of the Indian Ocean. According to the City of
London’s Global Financial Centres Index (2007), no African city makes it to the top
46 global finance centres. But there is increasing interest in creating financial centres
in many emerging economies. Three paramount factors are cited as perquisites of
success in establishing successful financial markets: (i) adequate human resource
skills and a flexible labour market; (ii) a transparent and effective regulatory
framework; and (iii) a critical mass of financial institutions in one location operating
in a conducive business environment. Financial markets tend to specialise in niche
markets e.g. commodities in Chicago, Islamic banking in Kuala Lumpur, or cross-
border investments (Hong Kong). To exploit her full potential, Kenya will decide on
the product combination that suits her best, and also put in place the institutions in a
widely-trusted and effective governance and regulatory framework.


Goals for 2030
Kenya will put in place a more efficient and competitive financial system to drive savings
and investments for sustainable broad-based economic growth. In addition to enhancing
efficiency, there is need to: increase access to financial services and products to a wider
section of Kenyans, particularly the poor, low-income households and micro- and small-scale
enterprises; strengthen the stability of the financial system; and, create an enabling
environment for different players in the financial system. This will include reviewing the
legal, regulatory and supervisory frameworks and consolidating the oversight function of the
financial system. The central policy objectives of the long-term strategy for the financial
sector include:


i. Improved access and deepening of financial services and products for a much
larger number of Kenyan households and small businesses;


ii. Mobilising additional savings to support higher investment rates;


iii. Greater efficiency in the delivery of financial services to ensure that the cost of

mobilising resources and allocating these resources becomes increasingly
affordable and that the range and quality of services better caters to the needs of
both savers and investors;


iv. Enhanced stability in the system to ensure that all banks and other deposit-taking

financial institutions can safely handle the public’s savings and ensure that the
chances of a financial crisis – with all the costs that this would imply – are kept to
a minimum;


v. Creating a better financial environment that will encourage stakeholder

involvement in ways that allow for an attractive return on investment and
protection of depositors’ interest;


vi. To make Kenya one of the ranked financial centres in “emerging markets” by

2030.


Page 91


Goals for 2012
With the objective of expanding access to more affordable financial services and products,
the Government will focus on reforms in the following five areas:


• Institutional Reforms: Accelerate reforms in the commercial justice system and
improve the system of collateral registration for better access to justice and also
encourage credit rating for financial institutions. Pending legislation affecting the
financial sector (e.g. anti-money laundering legislation) will need to be completed
and implemented.


• Long-term finance: Initiatives will be put in place to enhance availability of medium-

to long-term finance in the productive sectors, particularly those supporting rural
activities. There is consensus that Kenya’s economy suffers from a shortage of
medium- and longer-term finance for its productive sectors, and especially for
supporting rural activities. The strategy in this area is to enhance the lending
environment. Given the success of functioning banks and the potential for far more
term finance from the capital markets, the Government will, in the future, play a more
indirect role in the development of these institutions.


• An enabling environment: In order to encourage longer-term lending and borrowing

and fiscal discipline and to minimise pressure on interest rates, the Government will
continue to maintain a stable macro-economic environment characterised by low
inflation. Other structural reforms envisaged include the creation of an enabling
environment for private sector activities. This will involve strengthening governance
and improving infrastructure to reduce the cost of doing business.


• Capital markets: The Government will enhance the capacity of the Capital Markets

Authority (CMA) and the Nairobi Stock Exchange (NSE) to enable the two
institutions to play their respective regulatory roles. In order to encourage more stock
exchange listings, the Government will eliminate existing obstacles and encourage
collective savings institutions (mainly collective investment schemes, pension funds
and insurance companies) that have the potential to increase funds for investment.
Progress has already been made as far as improving the management of public debt is
concerned.


• Promote Nairobi as a regional financial centre.


The Government will also undertake the following initiatives aimed at improving the
efficiency of the financial system:


• Reform of the commercial justice system to expedite the settlement of commercial
disputes;

• Improve the registration of movable and immovable assets as collateral in order to
increase their tangibility;

• Encourage more use of ICT in the financial sector;


Page 92

• Effect necessary legal reforms to encourage use of non-conventional collateral (e.g.
warehousing and social capital) and strengthen the legal framework for effective
functioning of credit reference bureaux;

• Strengthen actions to ensure that banks provide transparent and understandable
information on charges made to clients;

• Remove barriers to effective competition in the system and encourage entrance and
exit; and

• Expedite the Companies Registry reforms to expand them to the districts.

Finally, in order to enhance stability in the financial sector and enhance the quality and
supervision of banking and other financial institutions, the Government will strengthen
supervisory bodies such as the Retirement Benefits Authority (RBA), CMA and the
insurance authority. The Government will also prepare a targeted supervisory regime for
quasi-banking institutions, including SACCOs and MFIs.


Page 93


CHAPTER 4: SOCIAL PILLAR: INVESTING IN THE PEOPLE OF KENYA

4.1 Overview


Kenya’s journey towards widespread prosperity also involves the building of a just and
cohesive society that enjoys equitable social development in a clean and secure environment.
This quest is the basis of transformation in eight key social sectors, namely: Education and
Training; Health; Water and Sanitation; the Environment; Housing and Urbanisation; as well
as in Gender, Youth, Sports and Culture. It also makes special provisions for Kenyans with
various disabilities and previously marginalised communities. These policies (and those in
the economic pillar) will be based on a strong Science, Technology and Innovation (STI)
foundation.

4.2 Education and Training

Kenya recognises that the education and training of all Kenyans is fundamental to the success
of the Vision. Education equips citizens with understanding and knowledge that enables them
to make informed choices about their lives and those facing Kenyan society. The education
sector will, therefore, provide the skills that will be required to steer Kenyans to the
economic and social goals of Vision 2030. The first immediate challenge facing the sector in
Kenya’s transformation to 2030 is how to meet the human resource requirements for a
rapidly changing and more diverse economy. The next challenge is to ensure that the
education provided meets high quality standards, and that its contents are relevant to the
needs of the economy and society. The third challenge to move rapidly in raising the
standards of the regions that lag behind in enrolment to bring then to par with other areas.
This is another way of reinstating the goal of universal school enrolment to which Kenya is
committed. A fourth challenge lies in improving the overall transition rates, particularly
from secondary to tertiary levels. The fifth, and perhaps the most daunting challenge, is to
create a cohesive society imbued with a culture of hard work and efficiency and one that
values transparency and accountability, respects the rule of law, and is concerned about the
environment. Education and training sector will be charged with the responsibility of creating
a knowledge-based society that upholds justice, democracy, accountability and encourages
issue-based and results-oriented political engagements. Various interventions will be
undertaken to inculcate a culture that upholds the supremacy and respect for the rule of law,
one which promotes national pride, positive behaviour, a strong work ethic and a culture of
saving, and which promotes attitudes favourable to environmental conservation.

The education sector will therefore be reformed in order to respond to these challenges.
Indeed, some of the reforms had already been initiated by the Government since 2002.
Kenya’s education sector will require substantial investment to produce the required human
resources for the priority growth sectors. As shown in figure 4.2.1, investments in education
will make significant contributions to other social sectors of the Vision, particularly health,
water and sanitation, the environment and housing. It will also help the country to address
gender imbalances, youth-related problems and obstacles facing other vulnerable groups by
equipping them with the skills that will enable them to live more productive and satisfying
lives in an expanding and diverse economy.


Page 94


Figure 4.2.1: Linkages between education and other social sub-sectors

Source: Team analysis

Sector Linkages

• Incorporating basic (i.e. preventive & promotive) health in the
school curriculum;

• Continued capacity development in human resources for health
(HRH)

Health

Water &
sanitation

• Inculcating a national culture of basic hygiene and responsible
water usage;

• Applying modern technologies to water extraction and delivery

Environment
• Providing appropriate manpower training on environmental

management;
• Providing a basis for shifting mindsets towards positive

environmental behavior

Gender
• Mainstreaming gender issues in the education and training as a

step towards securing parity in key sectors

Housing
• Developing relevant human resource capacities to transform the

construction industry, and thus benefiting local housing sector
entrepreneurs

The youth
• Empowering the youth with relevant knowledge, skills and attitudes

(e.g. responsibility, hard work, honesty, accountability)

• Imparting knowledge
and skills to improve
management of
social systems

• Nurturing a cohesive
and knowledgeable
society with core
national values (e.g.
tolerance, patriotism,
respect for life and
basic human rights)


Situation analysis
At independence, the Government of Kenya recognised that education was the basic tool for
human resources development, improving the quality of life and cultivating nationalistic
values. Although the education sector has faced serious challenges over the years
(particularly those relating to access, equity, quality and relevance), significant achievements
have been made over the years. Today, Kenya has one of the strongest and most diverse
human resources pools in the region. As shown in Figure 4.2.2, enrolment throughout the
country’s education system has improved markedly, though notably at the primary and public
university levels. The rate of transition from primary to secondary has registered particularly
impressive growth – from 41.7 per cent in 2002 to 60.0 per cent in 2005. In order to meet
training requirements, as well as standards of a rapidly industrialising country, these positive
trends will have to be sustained.


Page 95


Figure 4.2.2: Adult and youth literacy gaps and enrolment trends

Source: Ministry of Education (2005); Statistical Abstract (2006); UNESCO; Team analysis

Adult and youth literacy levels
%

97
94

99

80

Kenya Indonesia Malaysia

8974

90

82

Literacy rates among adults (> 24 years)

Literacy rates among youth (15 – 24 years)

South
Africa

Kenya Indonesia MalaysiaSouth
Africa

Enrolment rate trends in Kenya’s education system

Secondary level
(Thousands)

81.5

2000 2005

Primary level NER
(Millions)

Polytechnics
(Thousands)

Public Universities
(Thousands)

Private Universities
(Thousands)

1999/2000 2003/2004

7.6

17.8

8.5

38.7

7.0 12.7

14.8

19.8

8.3


The Government’s expenditure on education is equivalent to 7.0 per cent of the country’s
GDP. This translates into one of the highest expenditure levels per student out of the
education GDP in Africa (Figure 4.2.3). The share of education out of the Government
budget and commitment to education reflected in the percentage GDP dedicated to education
is comparable to that of a middle income country. As GDP grows, total expenditure for
education will rise, bringing other problems facing the system into sharper focus. Among
these challenges, improving the overall efficiency of the system ranks high as an education
policy priority, followed crossly by the need to bridge disparities between the country’s
regions, income levels and sexes. With regard to enrolment rates, there has been steady
increase from 2002 at different levels. However, transition rates have remained relatively low
over the same period.


Page 96


Figure 4.2.3: Comparative education expenditures

Source: Ministry of Education (2005); Statistical Abstract (2006); UNESCO; Team analysis

Kenya Indonesia Malaysia

GDP
(US$)

Educational expenditure
(US$)

South
Africa

Kenya Indonesia MalaysiaSouth
Africa

130

18

287
240

10
12

3
1

Kenya Indonesia Malaysia

Expenditure per pupil
(as % of GDP per capita)

Expenditure on education
(as % of Government spending)

South
Africa

Kenya Indonesia MalaysiaSouth
Africa

17
25

3

14

20
24

10

33


Although the primary school enrolment rate increased from 70.4 per cent in 2002 to 83.7 per
cent in 2005, there exist great gender and regional disparities, with the ASAL areas being the
worst affected. Specific and targeted initiatives will continue to be implemented to correct
these disparities. At secondary school level, transition went up from 42 per cent in 2002 to 60
per cent in 2006. However, the limiting factor to enrolment at this level is the availability of
facilities. Currently there are 4,215 schools to cater for about 3.2 million school-age children.
It will, therefore, be necessary to build additional schools and provide support to children
from vulnerable households.

At the university level, there is a serious shortage of capacity, both in public and private
institutions, as only about 30 per cent of those with minimum entry requirements can be
admitted. Although enrolment in public universities has increased over time, the high cost
continues to limit access for a large number of qualified students. As for private universities,
enrolment remains low at 12.7 per cent of total admissions.

The country also faces constraints in terms of physical facilities to cater for children with
special needs. Similarly, there are no programmes for children with special talents. This is an
area that will require targeted initiatives and collaboration with stakeholders. Despite the
rapid changes in domestic labour markets, the global environment, and advances in
technology, university graduate specialisation has remained relatively unchanged over the
past decade (Figure 4.2.4). There is, therefore, a need to re-orient education to focus on the


Page 97

changing economic and technological trends, in line with the national aspirations as
expressed in Vision 2030.

Figure 4.2.4: Distribution of training in public universities

Source:Statistical Abstract (2006); Team analysis

Graduate specializations
(%)

Improve learning skills at
lower levels to cope with
changing demands of
university education

Constantly review
universities’ role against the
goals and objectives of
Vision 2030

Humanities

Business

100% = 41,610

1999/00

5
1

20

17

31

5

8

Engineering

Education

Agriculture
Architecture

Science

100% = 79,685

2005/06

4
1

20

18

26

5

8

Re-align university
education with changing
needs of the economy

Emerging priorities


Challenges and opportunities
In order to meet the education and training requirements of the Vision, it will be necessary to
address the following challenges within the sector:


• Improving quality at primary school level: Introduction of free primary education in
2003 resulted in increased enrolment without commensurate increase in either
infrastructure or personnel. This has led to overstretched facilities, overcrowding in
schools, inefficient teacher utilisation, and high teacher to pupil ratios, all of which
have affected the quality of education at this level.


• Raising levels of transition rates: Though rising, the transition rate from primary to

secondary school, at 60 per cent, is still below that of developing countries on the
road to industrialisation and those with middle income status. Further, increase in
high school enrolment is hindered by the high cost of secondary education, and the
low participation of private providers of post-primary education. In recognition of the
problem, the Government in 2007 announced tuition fee relief for the initial years of
secondary education. With the imminent rise in the number of students completing
primary and secondary education as a result of state-provided education at those
levels, preparations will have to be made to also expand tertiary and higher education
enrolment.


Page 98

• Expanding access and equity: Despite recent improvements, high disparities in
access to education at all levels remain a challenge. Though present at primary and
secondary levels, the problem is most acute in technical, industrial, vocational and
entrepreneurship training (TIVET) institutions and at university level. Considerable
investments will, therefore, have to be made by both the public and private sectors to
correct these disparities.

• Relevance: Matching skills to market demand. This is a challenge at all levels. Many
primary and secondary students who cannot proceed with formal education are
absorbed by TIVET institutions. However, the training at this level has been hindered
by inadequate facilities as well as institutions; hence most young people end up in the
informal or Jua Kali sector. That problems and the mismatch between the level of
skills imparted by the education system as whole and the requirements of the labour
market, must be corrected in order to meet the demands of the new economy.


In anticipation of the expected increase in primary and secondary school output, institutions
will play a critical role in the production of skills that are required to achieve the goals and
objectives of this Vision. The Government will upgrade TIVET institutions to enable them to
provide training in skills consistent with emerging technologies and also introduce a national
system of certification. The Government will also introduce a system of accrediting private
sector institutions involved in TIVET. This will equip the informal sector with the technical
capability required to transform into small- and medium-enterprises, thus enabling them to
integrate into the modern economy. The training at this level will also be linked to higher
institutions of learning and should be recognised as a bridging course for higher skills
certification.


• Building a Skills Inventory for Kenya: A major challenge facing the Government and
the labour market is the absence of a skills inventory that would indicate the
distribution of well-trained Kenyans. This applies especially to Kenyans possessing
TIVET and university level education. Such a database is an indispensable tool for
planning the country’s future training programmes. It will also identify the existing
gap in human resource requirements in all the sectors and thus guide priorities in
where to train. To ensure that the training at both the TIVET and university level
remains relevant, there will be regular updating of the national skills inventory.


Page 99

Figure 4.2.5: Medium-term strategies for achieving 2012 goals

• Increase the number of
boarding schools in pastoral
districts

• Establish mobile schools in
ASAL

• Enhance financial strategies
for the disadvantaged

• Campaign against
retrogressive cultural
practices

• Incorporate special education
in the regular school system

Vision for 2030
Globally competitive quality education, training and

research for sustainable development

Strategic thrusts

Strategies

Access Quality Equity Science, technology &
innovation (STI)

• Expand the secondary
schools capacity by 560
schools
Integrate secondary
education as part of basic
education

• De-link catering and
accommodation from
admission at university
level

• Introduce Open and
Distant Learning

• Introduce e-learning and
blended learning as
alternative delivery system

• Recruit more teachers to
improve the teacher/student
ratio

• Gradually phase out the P1
teachers

• Ensure consistency within the
curriculum

• Increase the text book grant
• Encourage low cost book

publishing
• Revise pre-service primary

teacher training curriculum to
incorporate ECDE

• Mainstream STI into the
curriculum

• Make science subjects
compulsory in all
secondary schools

• Establish and equip
science laboratories in all
secondary schools

• Establish Centers of
Specializations for key
sectors

• Promote e-learning at
TIVET and university
levels

• Reduce teacher to
student ratio from 1:47 to
1:40

• Reduce the textbook to
pupil ratio from 1:3 to 1:1

• Fully integrate ECDE and
primary education

• Attain gender parity at
secondary level

• Attain regional parity

• Support mechanism for the
economically and physically
disadvantaged

• STI incorporated in the
curriculum

• Train 30,000 professionals
in tourism

• Train 7,500 BPO experts

Increase GER at ECDE by
50%

Raise primary to secondary
transition rate from 60% to
75%

Raise secondary to
university transition rate from
8% to 15%

Provide adequate and quality human resource necessary to deliver on the economic, social and political goalsOverall

Specific

G
oa

ls
fo

r
20

12


Vision for education
The vision for the education sector for 2030 is “to have globally competitive quality
education, training and research for sustainable development”. To achieve this vision, four
strategic areas, namely, access, quality, equity, science, technology and innovation have been
identified for support based on their impacts on the economic, social and political pillars.

Goals for 2012
Raising the transition rates: Kenya’s gross enrolment rate (GER) at the primary level in
2001 was 100 per cent, indicating that many pupils above primary school age are enrolled.
The net primary enrolment must now be raised closer to 100 per cent. The transition from
primary to secondary, which is at 60 per cent, must also rise. The key challenge is transition
from secondary level to university level, as only 3 per cent of secondary school students
currently enter university, a proportion that does not compare favourably with that of middle
income countries. To address the issue of access and to improve overall literacy levels, three
strategic objectives will be pursued:

• Increase GER in Early Childhood Development Education (ECDE) by 50 per cent;
• Raise the transition rate from primary to secondary level from 60 per cent to 75 per

cent; and
• Raise the transition rate from secondary level to university from 8 per cent to 15 per

cent.


Page 100

Raising the quality of education: In order to improve the productivity and competitiveness
of Kenya’s human resource pool, all students will be provided with a better learning
environment, including improved teaching skills and more textbooks. This will provide
learners with opportunities to exploit their potential to the fullest. The targets under this goal
will be to: reduce the teacher to student ratio from 1:47 to 1:40; reduce the textbook to pupil
ratio from 1:3 to 1:1; and integrate ECDE into primary education.

Addressing inequalities: To address disparities between male and female students and
between different, socio-economic groups and regions, measures will be undertaken to:

• attain gender parity at secondary school level;
• address the needs of learners with special needs;
• attain regional equity in school enrolment; and
• introduce a national support mechanism for physically disadvantaged learners.


This Vision is based on the creative talents capable of raising Kenya’s international
competitiveness through enhanced productivity at the microeconomic (industry) and national
levels. Throughout the education system, learning will inculcate the use of knowledge in
science, technology and innovation (STI) to create wealth, improve social welfare and
promote democratic governance. Appreciation of the critical role of STI to the Vision is
based on the understanding of today’s knowledge-based economies (KBEs) and the role that
innovation plays in such economies. A knowledge economy creates, adopts, and adapts
information on production and distribution of goods and services, making it the focal point
and the engine of rapid economic growth. That is where Kenya wishes to position itself.
Effective use of knowledge is becoming the most important factor for creating wealth and
improving social welfare and for international competitiveness. Implementing Vision 2030
will require more knowledge-based skills. This calls for more training in science-related and
technology-related courses. Kenya’s road to become a KBE will therefore not be restricted to
the realm of high technology, but will extend to the application of science and technology in
the economy, targeting areas such as pharmaceuticals, scientific instrumentation, and
information and communication technologies. These are expected to increase the growth
momentum in the priority factors thereby giving a boost to the economy as a whole.

By 2012 the country expects to have laid the foundation towards becoming a nation that
harnesses science, technology and innovation to foster national prosperity, global
competitiveness to provide a high quality of life to its people.

Meeting the Human Resource Needs of Vision 2030: With the anticipated pace of
economic growth, more of the existing skills and many others that Kenya does not have will
be required. The intention of this policy is to guarantee supply of overall required skill with
an emphasis on tourism and BPO sectors. To that extent Kenya will:

• Incorporate STI in education curricula: The education and training curricula in the
country will be reformed at length to ensure that the creation, adoption, adaptation
and usage of STI will become an integral part of the country’s education. This will in
turn drive the economic, rural and political transformation that the Vision aims at;

• Change the incentive structure: The country will adopt a new incentive structure to
recognise and reward innovators to support the use of STI in specialised research
centres, universities, business firms and agriculture;


Page 101

• Accelerate Teacher training : The Government will accelerate the pace of training for
school heads and other teachers, particularly to improve their STI skills; and

• Scale up examination and certification in various sectors (tourism, BPO, etc.) in
consultation with respective industry players, to encourage private investment in
training of professionals.

Strategies to deliver on 2012 education goals
In order to deliver the goals for 2012, specific strategies will be implemented to improve
access, quality and equity.

Access: In order to improve access to education, the following specific strategies will be
adopted:

i. Construction of new secondary schools – 560 new secondary schools will be
constructed to improve transition from primary schools and ensure increased and
equitable access to secondary education. In addition, financial support to
secondary school students will be enhanced (e.g. tuition waivers and bursaries for
vulnerable groups);

ii. Increasing enrolment in public universities – Having de-linked admissions from
the availability of bed-spaces in each campus, the Government will continue to
support the development of private (and faith-based) universities that meet the
requirements of the Commission for Higher Education. This is expected to raise
the transition rate from secondary school to universities to 8 per cent;

iii. Introducing open and distant learning – This will enhance access to university
education, especially to the financially disadvantaged; and

iv. Introducing e-learning and blended learning as an alternative delivery system – E-
learning will be introduced as an alternative mode of delivery of education. This
will improve both access and quality of the education.


Improving the Quality of Education: Specific strategies to improve quality will include:

i. Recruitment of more teachers to improve the teacher to student ratio – to attain
the required national standard of 1:40 teacher to student ratio, a major teacher
recruitment programme aiming to employ 28,000 more teachers by 2012 will be
implemented;

ii. Gradual phasing out the training of P1 teachers – Non-diploma teaching will be
phased out to pave the way for more diploma-level teachers at primary level in
public schools. This would ensure that teachers with higher level of training and
knowledge of modern teaching technologies are hired to enhance the quality of
education in Kenyan schools. Future training of teachers in these institutions will
focus on building STI skills;

iii. Building consistency within the curriculum – This initiative will streamline pre-
primary , primary and secondary curricula to ensure consistency and continuity,
while avoiding changes that are not internal and demand-driven;

iv. Improving the text book to pupil ratio – This will be done by increasing the text
book grant to schools; and

v. Integrating early child education into primary school learning – The Government
will introduce a pre-primary teacher training curriculum and link early child
education to primary education. This will strengthen early childhood education
and thereby lay a solid foundation for the country’s overall education and
training.


Page 102


Promoting Equity in Access to Education: Specific strategies to improve equity will
include:

i. Increasing the number of boarding schools in pastoral districts – In order to
improve equity and access, more boarding schools will be constructed in pastoral
and ASAL areas;

ii. Establishing mobile schools in ASAL – Mobile schools will be established where
appropriate in ASAL areas to ensure that children from pastoral communities
have access to education, even as their families migrate in search of pasture;

iii. Enhancing financial strategies for the disadvantaged – In order to assist
financially disadvantaged students, financial support programmes to vulnerable
groups will be increased and made beneficiary-friendly, for instance by the use of
voucher schemes and special grants to the neediest families;

iv. A Public Education Campaign against Retrogressive Cultural Practices –
Collaboration between the Government, communities and non-governmental
organisations will be enhanced to ensure effective observation of The Children’s
Act. Kenya will encourage community education to discourage retrogressive
cultural practices that are associated with low education indicators; and

v. To strengthen special education by integrating it into the regular school system –
Schools will be required to incorporate facilities for use by children with special
needs. Schools will also be encouraged to pay special attention to the needs of
these children both during learning and examination times.


Policy strategies for science and technology in education
Training in STI will be enhanced through four strategies, namely:

• Mainstreaming STI into the curriculum – The strategy will integrate instructional
technology into content and delivery at all levels;

• Establishing and equipping science laboratories in all secondary schools – This will
encourage all schools to give prominence to science subjects;

• Establishing centres of specialisation for key sectors – This will entail designating
various institutions to offer specialised training for all the sectors; and

• Promote e-learning at TIVET and university levels – This will encourage research
through access of information from advanced institutes in the developed world.


Flagship projects and initiatives
To realise the goals and implement the strategies, six flagship projects have been identified
alongside a number of key initiatives as outlined in Figure. 4.2.6.


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Figure 4.2.6: Flagship projects and initiatives

Vision for 2030
Globally competitive quality education, training and research for

sustainable development

Strategic thrusts

Access Quality Equity Science, technology &
innovation (STI)

• Undertake a teachers'
recruitment programme

• Implement a computer
supply programme

• Build at least one boarding
school in each constituency
in the pastoral districts

• Roll out the voucher system
programme in 5 poorest
districts

• Create “centres of
specialization" for each key
Vision 2030 sector

Build and fully equip 560 new
secondary schools

Undertake a skills inventory survey in regard to current and projected human resource requirements to facilitate
matching of graduates to opportunities in the economy

Create linkages and synergies for effective training between centres of excellence (universities and TIVET)

Upgrade primary teacher training colleges to offer Diploma and special education

Strengthen governance structures for accreditation and quality regulation purposes

Flagship projects

De-link university admission from accommodation

Build more boarding schools in pastoral areas

Key initiatives
Undertake a mapping of institutions and courses offered


Page 104

4.3 Health Care Delivery

Kenya’s vision for health is to provide “equitable and affordable health care at the highest
affordable standard” to her citizens.

Good health is expected to play an important role in boosting economic growth, poverty
reduction and the realisation of social goals. But it is also important in achieving one’s
personal ambitions, and exercising one’s political rights. However, the majority of Kenyans
still do not have access to affordable health care. Preventable diseases, such as HIV/AIDS,
malaria and tuberculosis, as well as road carnage, continue to exact a heavy toll on the
population. In the last five years, Kenya’s health system has improved significantly as a
result of increased financial resources, better governance and better management of health
delivery systems. The toll inflicted by the most deadly diseases has therefore been falling,
and Kenya’s overall health is better today than it was some years ago. The country must now
build on these achievements to achieve Vision 2030, starting with the planned priority
projects for the period 2008-2012.

Under the Vision, Kenya will restructure the health delivery system and also shift the
emphasis to “promotive” care in order to lower the nations’ disease burden. This will
improve access and equity in the availability of essential health care and result in a healthy
population that will effectively participate in the development of the nation. This
improvement will be achieved by a shift from curative care in large hospitals to lowering the
incidence of preventable diseases, control of environmental threats to health, and research
that targets the medical needs of communities in their specific circumstances. In the process,
a majority of Kenyans will be able to escape the heavy disease burden using existing
knowledge and resources. The vision strategy is also to undertake public education
programmes to encourage Kenyans to change their lifestyles in ways that will improve the
health status of individuals, families and communities. Increased attention will be given to
improving the nation’s health infrastructure, particularly in rural and severely deprived areas
and communities. This approach will achieve major gains through the involvement of local
communities in the management of health services, allowing the Ministry’s headquarters to
focus on policy and research. The vision recognises the role of the private sector in
improving the delivery of health care in partnership with the public sector. Through such
partnerships, Kenya will position herself as a competitive provider of specialised health care.
The overall goal is a paradigm shift that will bring fundamental changes to the way health
services are delivered in Kenya.

Despite an unprecedented rise in the Government’s financial allocation to the health sector,
the need for health services has escalated beyond the financing capacity of the Ministry of
Health. Institutional reforms have therefore been introduced to improve the country’s health
care delivery systems. Although the overall national incidence of leading killer diseases,
such as HIV/AIDS and malaria, has fallen, the impact of these diseases has negatively
affected life expectancy, which fell from 54 years in 1975 to 47 years in 2005. However, the
maternal mortality ratio dropped from 590 per 100,000 live births in 1998 to 414 per 100,000
live births in 2003, a factor that can be attributed to improved access. But in general, despite
recent improvements, Kenya has a considerable way to go before it meets the MDG health
goals and standards of a middle income, rapidly industrialising state, particularly in maternal
and child mortalitity and longevity.


Page 105


Kenya has therefore defined a “devolution” approach that will allocate funds and
responsibility for delivery of health care to district hospitals, and clinics, thereby empowering
Kenyan households and social groups to take charge in improving their own health. A similar
model has worked quite efficiently in the Ministry of Education. This will be achieved
through introduction of community-level care units to serve the local population and by
creating a cadre of well-trained Community-Owned Resource Persons and Community
Health Extension Workers (CHEWs). This strategy is based on the realisation that
communities benefit from affordable, equitable and effective health care most when they
participate in policy making on local health care delivery. As a result of this participation,
communities become more compliant and motivated.

Situation analysis
As demonstrated in Figure 4.3.1, Kenya lags behind countries such as South Africa, Malaysia
arid Indonesia in basic health indicators, including infant mortality, under-five mortality and
maternal mortality. Kenya also has a large gap to fill in meeting the standards the Vision
calls for in child immunization, weight and decline in stunting. Further, there are only 14
physicians for every 100,000 Kenyans, a situation that needs to be improved.

Figure 4.3.1: Mortality rates and child health indicators

Source: KDHS (2003); HDI (2006)

Mortality rates and child health indicators

79

55

28

Kenya

South Africa

Indonesia

Malaysia 10

36

12

Infant Mortality
(per 1,000 live births)

Under-5 mortality
(per 1,000 live births)

Maternal mortality
(per 100,000 live births)

72

81

73

95

12

28

11

Fully immunized
children (%)

Underweight
children (%)

Stunted
children (%)

120

68

307

30

410

150

20

25

42

16

30

Kenya’s high infant and under-5
Mortality may be attributed to

HIV/AIDS and poverty

Maternal deaths are associated
with inefficient pre and post
delivery healthcare services

The country has a large gap to
fill in meeting Vision 2030 standards

for healthy children


The process to reform Kenya’s system of Government-provided health care has already
begun. The distribution of quality health care between the country’s income groups, regions,
rural-versus-urban areas, is inequitable. A summary of the key focus areas in the health
sector is provided in Figure 4.3.2. The focus areas mainly address the issues of: geographical
and financial access to health care services; regional and gender disparities; efficiency;
financing; health care policy; and public private partnerships.


Page 106


Figure 4.3.2: Key focus areas in the health sector

Issues Indicators

Access
• Geographical access
• Financial access
• Socio-cultural barriers

• Affordability
• Availability
• Accessibility (distance to facility)

Equity
• Regional disparities
• Socio-economic factors
• Gender and vulnerable groups
• Physically challenged

• Access by gender
• Access indicators across regions
• Specific information on the vulnerable

and physically challenged

Capacity

• Service delivery systems
• Healthcare inputs
• Partnerships
• Healthcare financing
• Research

• Procedure (safety)
• Capacity development (healthcare personnel)
• Resources
• Health system (curative vs. preventive)
• Utilization of healthcare systems
• Equitable allocation of resources

Institutional
framework

• Healthcare policy
• Level and type of autonomy /

integration
• Incentive structure
• Stakeholder involvement /

collaboration

• Level and type of integration
• Stakeholder involvement in policy

formulation

Quality

• Service delivery
• Research
• Efficiency

• Appropriateness
• Level of delivery
• Service range
• Quality and quantity

of personnel

Focus areas

• Continuity
• Effectiveness
• Efficiency


Kenya’s high infant and under-five mortality rates could be attributed to the HIV/AIDS
pandemic, poverty and the general decline in economic well-being. Maternal deaths are
strongly associated with sub-standard health care delivery services, a poor work ethic among
health care personnel and lack of the necessary medical supplies at the time of labour,
delivery and immediately after birth. There is an urgent need to address these issues. For the
country to achieve the Vision aspirations there is a need, firstly, to put in place effective and
efficient management of basic and specialised health care.

In addition, the country needs to become more efficient in the overall use of health resources.
One way of doing this is to restructure health care spending towards preventive rather than
curative services. In 2006, 51 per cent of public sector expenditures in health went towards
curative health with only 5 per cent dedicated to preventive and promotive health care. This
is the pattern the Vision aims to reverse. That change will be reinforced by an increase in the
number of health care providers. The country’s number of health personnel to the population
is still inadequate e.g. there are only 14 physicians for every 100,000 people, which is too
low. The number of health personnel will be increased and re-oriented towards provision of
preventive health care.


Page 107


Figure 4.3.3: The levels of health sector expenditure and disease burden

Source: Ministry of Education (2005); Statistical Abstract (2006); UNESCO; Team analysis

Tuberculosis prevalence (per 100,000)

Kenya Indonesia Malaysia

Life expectancy (Number of years)

South
Africa

Health spending and Number of physicians

Number of
Physicians**
(Thousands)

Kenya Malaysia

Health spending*
(% of GDP)

2.2

17.8 70

1.9

HIV / AIDS prevalence (%)

0.5
6.1

0.1

18.8

133

888

275

670

73

47

67

49

* 51 per cent of the public sector health budget in 2006 was spent on
curative health; only 5% went to preventive and promotive health care

** The national distribution of physicians is skewed in favour of urban
centres


The burden of disease
Poor health imposes a heavy burden on society and slows down economic growth. Illness in
the family is one of the major causes in the reduction of incomes and assets of poor Kenyans.
HIV/AIDS, for instance, has had a demonstrated negative impact on households, their
education, as well as in their workforce productivity. Figure 4.3.4 illustrates various
dimensions of the impact of the disease burden.


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Figure 4.3.4: The burden of ill health on the nation

Patient

Increased
dependency ratio

High cost of
production as a
result of medical
bills and retraining

Increased strain as
workers are forced
to take up duties of
sick colleagues

Diversion of resources
from investment to
curative services

Poor education
performance due to
high dropout rates

Discouragement of
investors, FDI,
tourism, …

Closure of
businesses and
sale of assets to
take care of the sick

Reduced productivity
due to loss of
working hours
through absenteeism

Source: Team analysis

4.4 Health and the economy
To accomplish the economic goals anticipated in Vision 2030, the health sector will play a
critical supportive role in maintaining a healthy, working population, which is necessary for
the increased labour production that Kenya requires in order to match its global competitors.
This is illustrated in Figure 4.4.1. Beyond that, enjoyment of a healthy life by Kenyans has
other benefits. To enjoy political rights, and to benefit from education and the other social
goods that our growing economy will provide, individual well-being is crucial.


Page 109

Figure 4.4.1: Linkages of health to the economic pillar

Source: Team analysis

Sector Linkages

• Quality and range of health services aimed at enhancing medical
tourism Tourism

Agriculture
• Health communities lead to increased production thus food security
• If not well managed, increased irrigation and use of chemicals could

lead to high water-borne disease incidence

Wholesale and retail
trade

• Need to address environmental health particularly in relation to toxic
waste management

Manufacturing
• Need to adopt environmentally friendly manufacturing processes geared

towards reducing air and water pollution

BPO
• Without adequate regulation, developments in the sector could lead to

production of e-waste and other hazardous materials

Financial services
• Reducing the healthcare (expenditure) burden can lead to higher

(household, corporate and national) savings
• Ill health is closely related to high levels of poverty

Enablers
• Need to develop infrastructure for better health (e.g. improving the road

and transport networks leads to lower crashes, less emissions and
hence reduced bronchial infections)


Strategies to improve health care
One of the basic strategies for achieving the health care goals of Vision 2030 is structural
change. This will be achieved through an enhanced regulatory regime and the creation of an
enabling environment to ensure increased private sector participation, and greater community
involvement in service management. This will be followed by increasing finances available
to the health sector and ensuring that they are utilised more efficiently. The health sector will
thus be reformed through improved governance, decentralisation of health facility
management, emphasis on preventive services, enhanced collaboration with stakeholders, as
well as by giving operational autonomy to district and provincial hospitals. The Government
will involve communities in these reform efforts. The Government will also initiate strategies
to promote affordable and equitable health care financing, which will reduce Kenyans’ out-
of-pocket expenditure on medical care. A summary of the strategies to be pursued in the
sector are shown in Figure 4.4.2.


Page 110

Figure 4.4.2: Goals and strategies for health care

Vision for 2030
Equitable and affordable healthcare system of the highest

possible quality

Strategic thrusts

Strategies

Health structure: Provide a
functional, efficient and sustainable
health infrastructure network

Health service delivery: Improve the
quality of healthcare delivery to
international standards

Develop equitable health financing
mechanism

• Develop a social health insurance
scheme

• Establish a health service commission
• Scale up Output Based Approach

(OBA) system

• Increase access to physical
infrastructure

• Support improved availability of
quality health services

• Strengthen KEMSA to be the
strategic procurement unit for health
sector

• Provide defined health services at
the community level

• Strengthen health facility- community
linkages

• Enhance the promotion of individual
health & lifestyle

• Strengthen the capacity of
community extension workers and
community owned resource persons

• Market and promote Kenya as regional
health service hub

• Promote medical tourism
• Increase the number and cadre of

health personnel and improve working
environment

• Establish an efficient referral network
• Establish quality standard norms
• Strengthen regulatory framework
• Build capacity of health service facilities

on procurement requirements
• Establish and operationalise district

health boards, and DHSFs
• Separate service provision from

regulation
• Establish a course on Hospital

Management

• Make Kenya a regional health
services hub

• World class medical centres
established

• Reduce the shortage of HRH by
60%

• Professional managers in all
hospitals

• PPPs institutionalised

• Reduce the out-of-pocket expenditure
to 25%

• social health insurance scheme
(Purchaser-provider system) in place

• All health facilities rehabilitated and well
equipped

• Fully functional health facilities in every
urban centre

• 60% of Kenyans reached thro’
comprehensive community services

• Health Management Information
System developed

Reduce health inequalities and reverse the downward trend in the health-related impact and outcome indicatorsOverall

Specific

G
oa

ls
fo

r
20

12

Preventive-promotive healthcare service for all KenyansFocus

• Health Sector reforms to promote preventive health care services, management and regulation across all levels
• Improved literacy rates and change of retrogressive cultures and attitudes
• Demographic Issues

Cross cutting
issues


Revitalisation of health infrastructure
To enable Kenya to provide efficient, equitable, affordable and high quality health care, a
functional health delivery infrastructure will be put in place. This will be achieved through
the implementation of the following strategies: (a) Increase access to health facilities; (b)
Strengthen the Kenya Medical Supplies Agency (KEMSA) to be the strategic procurement
unit for the sector; (c) Establish and strengthen health facility-community linkages; and (d)
Build the capacity of community extension workers and community-owned resource persons.

Strengthening health service delivery
The strengthening of health service delivery will be achieved through: (a) Decentralisation
and operationalisation of health care management to the facility level; (b) Introduction of
qualified health facility managers; (c) Separation of the regulatory function from health
service delivery; (d) Development of a policy on Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs). The
implementation of these strategies will consolidate Kenya’s position as the regional hub for
health care services.

Developing equitable financing mechanisms
Equitable health financing will be attained through the following strategies: (a) emphasising
preventive health financing; (b) creating fiscal space through efficient use of resources; (c)
expansion of health insurance schemes. A mix of health care financing mechanisms will be
developed to make health care accessible to all.


Page 111

Flagships projects and key initiatives
Flagships projects and initiatives that will be implemented to deliver on the 2012 goals are
shown in Figure 4.4.3.


Figure 4.4.3: Flagship projects for the health sector

Vision for 2030
Equitable and affordable healthcare system of the highest

possible quality

Strategic thrusts

Flagship projects

Health structure: Provide a
functional, efficient and sustainable
health infrastructure network

Health service delivery: Improve the
quality of healthcare delivery to
international standards

Equitable health financing
mechanism

• Create a mandatory national health
insurance scheme (with contributions
from employers and employees)

• Channel health funding directly to
health care centres (i.e. hospitals
and CHCs) as is done with education
grants

• Scale up output-based approach
(OBA) system

• Revitalise and integrate community
health centres (CHCs) to promote
preventive healthcare

• De-link the Ministry of Health (MOH)
from service delivery to allow
independent operations at tiers 4, 5 and
6 (i.e. district, provincial and national
hospitals)

Key initiatives • Conduct facility / HR mapping
exercise;

• Strengthen KEMSA to be the
strategic procurement unit for the
health sector; and

• Rehabilitate and provide appropriate
medical equipment for healthcare at
all levels

• Recruit appropriate number and
cadres of health workers by district
and station;

• Collaborate with the Ministry of
Education to introduce hospital
management courses at training
institutions;

• Improve the working environment for
health workers;

• Establish frameworks for public-
private partnerships (PPPs) in
healthcare service delivery; and

• Train community-based healthcare
workers on environmental health,
water and sanitation, nutrition and
personal hygiene

• Increase and shift resources to
underserved areas (e.g. pastoral
districts);

• Re-allocate regional budgets to
address disparities in health outputs;
and

• Enhance the output-based approach
(voucher system)


Under revitalisation of health infrastructure, two specific initiatives will be undertaken:

• Rehabilitation of health facilities, primarily community health centres and
dispensaries, to promote preventive health care and to treat diseases at the community
level;

• Establishing strong community-based information systems to facilitate access to
health-related information and outreach.


Under strengthening of health service delivery, the major flagship projects will be:

• De-linking the Ministry of Health from service delivery to focus on regulation and
supervision;

• Providing operational autonomy to tiers 4, 5 and 6 (district, provincial and national)
hospitals – initiatives under this thrust will be to establish functional referral systems
at all levels;

• Integration of local communities in health care management – legislation enabling
public private partnerships (PPPs) will be enacted to ensure a well-coordinated
approach to healthcare delivery. Community health workers and community resource
persons will be trained to implementing these partnerships.


Development of equitable financing mechanisms will be done through introduction of a
system to channel funds directly to health care facilities to ensure that funds allocated are
utilised for the intended purpose. An important initiative under this thrust will be to explore


Page 112

alternative health financing options, including national health insurance scheme. Another
initiative will involve the development of targeted health programmes for those members of
society in difficult circumstances.

Cross-Cutting Issues
It is recognised that literacy rates, some cultural practices and attitudes, and population
growth have an impact on health service delivery. Therefore, there will be a need for
enhanced cooperation and collaboration between ministries, Government agencies and other
stakeholders. Further, there will be a need to develop collaboration between agencies
involved in service delivery and devolved funds. These initiatives will be undertaken through
PPP arrangements wherever possible.

Impact of the Interventions in the Health Sector
It is expected that implementation of the identified interventions will lead to a significant
improvement in critical health indicators, as shown in Figure 4.4.4 and Figure 4.4.5.

Figure 4.4.4: Target indicators for the health sector (mortality)

Source: Ministry of Health; Team analysis

Infant mortality Under 5 mortality Maternal mortality

Infant mortality rate
Per 1,000 live births Maternal mortality rate

Per 100,000 live births
Under 5 mortality rate
Per 1,000 live births

25

79

2005 2012

147

410

2006 20122005 2012

33

120


The sector envisages reducing infant and child mortality rates by 68 per cent and 73 per cent
respectively by 2012.


Page 113

Figure 4.4.5: Target indicators for the health sector

Source: Ministry of Health; Team analysis

Immunization HIV / AIDS Life expectancy

Cases of Tuberculosis (TB) Malaria fatality

Fully immunized (below 1 year)
%

Life expectancy at birth
%

TB prevalence
Per 1,000

Prevalence rate
%

Inpatient malaria fatality
%

95
73

2006 2012

444

888

Safe delivery

Deliveries by skilled personnel
%

90

42
3

5

60
47

2006 20122006 2012

2005 2012 2005 2012 2006 2012

5.1

<5


Page 114

4.5 Water and Sanitation

Introduction
The Vision for the water and sanitation sector is “to ensure water and improved sanitation
availability and access to all by 2030”. Kenya is a water-scarce country with renewable fresh
water per capita at 647 m3 against the United Nations recommended minimum of 1,000 m3.
This compares unfavourably with the neighbouring countries of Uganda and Tanzania, which
have per capita levels of 2,940 m3 and 2,696 m3 respectively. Kenyans’ access to water and
sanitation is relatively poor compared to countries such as Malaysia. (Figure 4.5.1) It is
critical to note that Kenya’s fresh water per capita has been declining and is projected to
reach 235 m3 by 2025 unless effective measures to address the challenges are implemented.
Additional supply and more efficient management of Kenya’s scarce water resources, for
household and commercial enterprises, will therefore be necessary to achieve the economic,
social and political priority projects suggested by Vision 2030. Thus, all the flagship projects
- tourism, agriculture, industry etc. – will consume additional water. So will the measures
envisioned under education, health, urban development and housing in the social sector.
Better conflict resolution under the political pillar also has a water dimension since many
conflicts in rural Kenya tend to be resource-based with a bias towards shared water sources.
Efficient water management will, therefore, not only contribute to sustainable long-term
economic growth, but also to poverty reduction, health and security. The poor will gain
directly from improved access to water and sanitation through improved health, reduced
health costs and time saved. An improved water source together with better sanitation (which
includes disposal of effluents and excreta) is one of the most important contributors to better
human health. It is estimated that 80 per cent of all communicable diseases are water-related
and hence constitute a major portion of health care expenditure. Benefits of improved water
services and sanitation therefore include averted health related costs, which is a gain to the
economy as a whole.

The main consumers of water in Kenya have been industries, agriculture (horticulture and
livestock), energy production and domestic consumption, in that order. It is projected that the
use and demand for water will increase at an unprecedented level with the expected 10 per
cent annual growth rate, high levels of urbanisation and population growth. In the water
sector, Kenya has considerable ground to cover in order to meet these future demands.
Figure 4.5.1 demonstrates that for Kenya to meet the Vision 2030 goals, the country would
have to increase fresh water per capita by at least three-fold, and considerably boost access to
improved sanitation, in particular, which is one area where the gap is widest. It is also clear
that the biggest growth in demand for water will be in agriculture, particularly due to
migration.

Situation analysis
The water abstraction rate (i.e. percentage of all available water taken) in Kenya stands at 5.5
per cent; of this, surface water constitutes 84.7 per cent of all water used in the country, the
rest being underground. The amount of water abstracted is below the country’s potential.
There is also an imbalance in water abstraction rates across the five drainages. Although
Lake Victoria has the highest water endowment in the country, it is the least abstracted from
as only 2.2 per cent of its water is taken for use. This is mainly due to limitations of the Nile
Treaty, which has now lapsed. Provided the right policies are implemented, it should be


Page 115

possible to increase the surface water abstraction six-fold and ground water abstraction
seven- fold by 2015.
Figure 4.5.1: Kenya water and sanitation indicators

* Amount of water removed from some type of source, (e.g. groundwater) for human use. The water is subsequently returned some period of time later
after its is used, but the quality of the returned water may not be the same as when it was originally removed.
Source: World Bank (2006); Ministry of Water & Irrigation

Fresh water
per capita

Access to improved /
safe sanitation (rural)

Access to improved
water (urban)

Access to improved
water (rural)

Water withdrawal*

Key water and
sanitation metrics Kenya

50%

60%

40%

5.7%

• Kenya is categorized
as a ‘water scarce’
country;

• Major water sources
are declining (both in
quantity and quality);

• The quality of the
country’s toilets is
poor – many
households share
toilets (especially in
urban slums)

23,298m3

98%

96%

94%

1.6%

Malaysia

647m3


A promising start has already been made. Kenya’s water sector underwent significant
reforms in the last five years after Water Act 2002 was enacted by Parliament. The main
objective of the reforms was to manage water services and resources efficiently by separating
responsibilities of providing water to consumers from water production and management.
Kenya will build on that progress. A critical look at the flagship projects proposed under
Vision 2030 indicates the high priority given to water in the country’s projected economic
and social transformation. Figure 4.5.2 shows specific linkages between water and the
Vision’s economic and social pillars.


Page 116

Figure 4.5.2: Linkages between water and other economic and social sectors

Sector Linkages

• Resort cities, premium parks, niche products – These will require additional water and
expansion of water and sanitation infrastructure

• Wildlife – Kenya’s wildlife, a key attraction to tourists, requires water for survival
Tourism

Agriculture
• Irrigation – Development of irrigation will increase demand for water as more land is brought

under cultivation
• Livestock – Water demand in ASALs will be met by constructing water conservation

structures (dams and water pans) and drilling of more boreholes

Wholesale and
retail trade

• Modernization of new retail markets – District-based retail markets require water and
sanitation services, as will new supermarket chains

Manufacturing
• Special Economic Zones – Manufacturing processes require water supply and waste water

disposal systems. Agro-processing is one of the highest consumers of water
• SMEs – SME parks will also consume additional water and require sanitation services.

Health
• Improved Health – Since about 80%of all communicable diseases are water-related, access

to safe water and sanitation to households will be required to improve health standards.

Environment
• Degraded catchment areas – Degraded water resources will be reclaimed to boost supply
• Pollution – Industrial effluents and agricultural chemicals affect water quality, increase cost

of treatment and endanger lives

Governance
• Cohesive society – Equitable distribution of water resources will help establish a more

cohesive society since lack of water has been a source of conflict in the past

Source: Team analysis

Challenges and opportunities
The focus of Vision 2030 in the water sector involves addressing the following eight
challenges:


• Addressing water scarcity: Addressing Kenya’s limited and uneven water sources is a
priority challenge. Presently, our renewable fresh water capita stands at 647 m3 and is
projected to fall to 235 m3 by 2025 if supply does not keep up with population
increase. There are also regional imbalances in water availability and utilisation that
must also be addressed. Highland areas, the Coast and the Lake Region have better
water access than the ASAL districts.


• Improving water security: Kenya needs a consistent and reliable supply of water

regardless of changes in climate. Inadequate water harvesting has resulted in parts of
the country having a lot of water during rainy seasons and little or no water during
dry periods. Extreme climatic changes that cause flooding have an immense negative
impact on both the social and economic fronts. Improved storage infrastructure will
therefore be undertaken in exploiting the proposed irrigation potential in the country
and in providing more water supplies to businesses and households. Improved water
harvesting will also provide opportunities for the ASAL communities to achieve food
security. Construction of dams in parts of the country that have continually
experienced disasters caused by drought and floods (e.g. in Kano Plains, Budalangi
and ASAL areas) will therefore be undertaken to reduce water insecurity and
vulnerability of families inhabiting those areas. This challenge is dealt with under the
environment.


Page 117

• Catchments management: Although this is already being addressed by the
Government, degradation of water sources has been caused by poor land management
(mostly destruction of natural vegetation in the catchment areas through activities
such as farming, encroachment and illegal logging of forests). Deforestation in the
past was also caused by forest excision for farm settlement and illegal tree felling for
fuel use and timber. This caused increased runoff, flash flooding, reduced infiltration,
soil erosion, and siltation in the dams and other water reservoirs.


• Increased demand as a result of population growth and economic development: The

growing population (expected to reach more than 60 million by 2030) and increasing
economic activities will increase demand for water for domestic use, food security,
and industrial development. It will, therefore, be necessary to have a corresponding
increase in the development of water resources to meet the demands of an increasing
population and a growing economy.


• Better water quality: Improvement of quantity must be matched by that of quality.

Increased commercial farming activities, coupled with rapid industrialisation and
laxity in law enforcement, have led to increased effluent discharge into water bodies
and disposal of farm chemicals and waste into rivers. All these have resulted in the
degradation of our water resources.


• Increasing the amount of irrigated land: The level of development of irrigation in

Kenya is low compared to its potential. Kenya’s irrigation potential in 2006 was
estimated at 539,000 hectares, but only 105,800 hectares (about 20 per cent of
irrigable land) have been exploited for agricultural production. However, with the
construction of water storage facilities, the available irrigated land could be increased
to 1.3 million hectares. This could be achieved through enhanced water storage
capacity, thereby increasing agricultural production. This would also help control
floods, which mainly affect poor communities, Under Vision 2030, productivity in
the proposed irrigated areas will therefore have benefits on the future of Kenya’s
economy and society that go beyond increasing agricultural production and value
addition, as proposed in the economic pillar.


• Low level of infrastructure development: Kenya’s water and sewerage infrastructure

coverage will have to rise in order to meet standards associated with middle income
countries. In 2005, clean water sources were available to an estimated 60 per cent of
the urban population and 40 per cent of rural homes, while improved sanitation
coverage was 55 per cent for urban areas and 50 per cent in the countryside. As stated
earlier, water coverage will be increased through investment in infrastructure,
rehabilitation and construction of new water supplies and more efficient management
of available water. This will result in the reduction in levels of unaccounted-for-
water, which is currently estimated to be 60 per cent. Poor physical planning in our
urban areas, coupled with the proliferation of unplanned settlements, is also a major
challenge to the provision of clean water to all urban homes. This problem will be
addressed under the urbanisation and housing strategies of this document.


• Water resources monitoring: In order to increase water supply and to use water

resources more efficiently, Kenya needs to upgrade its capacity for monitoring trends


Page 118

in water flows and abstraction. Currently water resource monitoring covers only 30
per cent of total estimated available supply through various sources. This is primarily
due to inadequate staff and insufficient hydro-meteorological stations. This challenge
will need to be addressed as a priority since to be really effective, all new planning
and distribution of water and sanitation services will need to be based on reliable
data.


Vision for the water sector
The Vision in this sector is to “ensure water and sanitation availability and access for all”. By
2030, no Kenyan should be without access to an improved water source and sanitation. Like
in other sections of this Vision, this objective will be realised in blocks of five-year
development plans. The outline for the first five-year block will be the following:

Goals for 2012
Over the next five years, the water sector aims to improve access to safe water and sanitation
with the goal of attaining 90 per cent access to safe and reliable water for urban areas and 70
per cent for rural areas and reducing levels of unaccounted-for-water to below 30 per cent. It
will aim to achieve 70 per cent and 65 per cent access to safe sanitation for urban and rural
households, respectively. It will also aim to attain 40 per cent and 10 per cent sewerage
access for urban and rural areas, respectively.

Increasing national capacity for water storage and harvesting: Kenya also aims to increase
water storage per capita to 16 m3 up from the current 8 m3 by raising the capacity of the new
water services boards. Increased water resources will also be combined with an efficient
distribution of water resources. The adoption of market principles should also bring down the
cost of water in unplanned settlements, where the cost of water is extremely high. This
approach will also make it possible for the boards to acquire additional financial resources
for rehabilitation of the systems as well as new investments. In addition to achieving the goal
for irrigation, (which is to increase the area under irrigation to 1.2 million hectares and
increase area under drainage to 90,000 hectares by 2012) expanded water supply will have
met other economic and social goals of the vision.

In the area of water resource management, the sector is setting a goal to increase regular
monitoring of water resources from the current 30-40 per cent to 70 per cent in order to
identify areas that need attention before serious deterioration. Implementation of the two
water catchment management strategies (in Tana and Lake Victoria north) will also be
finalised by 2012, while preparation of the remaining four catchment management strategies
are being completed. Another goal in the management of resources will be to ensure that 90
per cent of the rivers have reserve flow at all times.

Strategies to deliver on the 2012 Goals for Water
Better management of water resources
Effective management of water resources will be achieved through: enforcing regulations by
the Water Resources Management Authority (WRMA); encouraging formation of water
resource users’ associations by communities to assist in self regulation; and promoting fair
allocation of water among users for sustainability. The Government will also rehabilitate 600
hydrometric stations and develop 2 international standard status hydrometric stations for the
purpose of monitoring the status of water resources. Consolidation of water sector reforms
arising from enactment of the Water Act 2002 provides an opportunity for improving water


Page 119

service provision and resource management. Taking advantage of the enabling environment
for public-private sector collaboration, especially in the development and management of
water projects, and accelerating the trend, will avail more funds for scaling up service
provision and management. Appropriate use of the Sector-Wide Approach to Planning
(SWAP) as a tool for coordinated approach to planning will also promote prioritisation of the
various programmes and ensure that resources are provided to deserving areas. To enhance
water storage capacity, the strategy will increase investment in the storage infrastructure and
develop innovative community-based methods and technologies for water harvesting. In rural
areas, specific focus will be placed on capturing and storing run-off water from tin roofs. In
addition, the country will intensify catchment methods for ground run-off water.

Upgrading water supply and sanitation systems
The water strategy aims to intensify Kenya’s access to safe water and better sanitation using
the national network of water services boards, and the private sector, where necessary. The
water programmes will integrate both water and sanitation components, thereby ensuring
simultaneous development of water and sanitation with the right pricing. This is expected to
bring individual and social benefits that will outweigh the investment costs. With the
expected increase in urban population and development of the 15 medium towns and the new
resort cities at the Coast, Isiolo and Lodwar, water and sanitation systems in those sites will
be accorded priority. Public-private partnerships, in particular, will be encouraged in the
development and management of water supply and clustering of viable water supplies and
sewerage systems, as the Government and its international development partners may not
have all the financial resources this will require.

Irrigation
To achieve the goal of increasing the area under irrigation to 1.2 million hectares and to
improve efficiency over the next five years, it will be necessary to finalise the policy, legal
and institutional framework for irrigation and also develop a national irrigation master plan.
This will indicate priority areas and also promote coordination of irrigation projects in the
country in a manner that will empower communities and also allow private sector
participation, where necessary. The existing schemes will, therefore, need to be rehabilitated
and expanded while new ones are put in place. Increasing the sustainability of irrigated and
drained areas will be achieved by empowering communities to manage their schemes and
thereby increase productivity to optimum levels. Investment in human resource capacity
development will be important to achieving this end.

Water sector reforms
Reforms in the water sector will be consolidated to make all new institutions operational,
thereby decentralising sectoral management and development. This will result in efficient
delivery of water services and sustainable water resources management.

Cross cutting issues
In order to achieve the goals set for water and sanitation, it will be necessary for the country
to pay attention to cross-cutting issues that that affect all sectors of the economy. One of
these is the problem of environmental degradation, which continues to have a negative
impact on the availability of water. Another concern is the lack of a gender focus in water
policy and management; water scarcity affects women and girls more than it does men and
boys because women and girls – in both rural and urban areas – are often charged with the
responsibility of ensuring that household needs for water are met. Women and girls who


Page 120

spend a large portion of their day fetching water are denied the opportunity to engage in other
economic activities and schooling. Integrated land use planning will take account of water
sources and its infrastructure. A well-planned settlement makes supply and servicing more
manageable. Cultural practices in certain communities in the country have continued to
negate progress in improving rural sanitation, and will have to be addressed through
education and more effective interventions by local leaders and community experts.

Figure 4.5.3: Overall goals and strategies to achieve these goals

Vision 2030
Water and sanitation availability and access to all

Water resource
management
Increase fresh water
availability; establish a
monitoring programme for
water

Water storage &
harvesting
Improve water
Storage capacity

Water supply
Upgrade water supply
systems in all urban
areas and augment /
expand rural water
supplies

Strategic
thrusts

Strategy

• Infrastructure, culture, gender and environment

• Reverse the declining water availability per capita
• Increase access to safe water and sanitation
• Increase area under both irrigation and drainage from 140,000 ha to over 300,000 ha

Overall

Specific

G
oa

ls
fo

r 2
01

2

Sanitation
Expand sewerage
coverage

Irrigation and
drainage
Expand area
under irrigation
and drainage

• Increase
investment in the
water storage
infrastructure

• Develop innovative
community based
methods and
technology for
water harvesting

• Develop water
conservation
structures in ASAL
areas e.g. dams
and water pans

• Rehabilitate 600
hydrometric stations

• Develop 2 international
status stations

• Enforce regulations for
water resource
monitoring

• Encourage formation of
water resource users’
association by
communities to assist in
self regulation

• Mapping of
underground water
aquifers

• Increase regular
monitoring of water
resources to 70%

• Implement the 2 water
catchment management
strategies, and
complete preparation of
the remaining 4

• Increase the area
under irrigation to
210,000 ha

• Increase drainage area
to 90,000 ha

• Attain 70% and
65% access to
safe sanitation
and 40% and 10%
sewerage access
in urban and rural
areas respectively

• Increase water
access in urban and
rural areas to 72%
and 59% respectively

• Reduce unaccounted
for water from 60% to
30%

• Double water
storage per capita to
at least 16m3

• Expand/rehabilitate
water supply and
sewerage systems in
urban and rural areas

• Encourage private
sector participation in
water supply
development and
management

• Cluster viable water
supplies under a single
service provider

• Encourage self financing
for O&M in urban water
supply and subsidize
cost of water to the poor

• Promote use of
VIP latrines and
septic tanks in
rural areas and
schools

• Develop and
expand sewerage
schemes
especially in urban
areas

• Promote public
health education
on sanitation

• Develop an irrigation
mater plan including
the policy (legal and
institutional)
framework

• Promote use of
appropriate irrigation
technology

• Empower
communities to
develop and manage
their schemes

Cross cutting
issues


Flagship projects and initiatives
To execute the water strategies, the following four flagship projects have been identified to
ensure achievement of the 2012 goals:


1. Improved water resource information and management: This will entail rehabilitation
of the hydro metrological network to reactivate 600 stations that are not functioning
currently. In order to provide water to the ASAL areas, ground water hydro-
geological mapping will be undertaken in Turkana and Marsabit. Formulation of the
four remaining water catchment strategies will be another area of focus as
implementation of Tana and Lake Victoria catchment strategies is completed.


2. Increase water storage and harvesting: Given the importance of water storage and

harvesting in increasing the area under irrigation and in flood control and water
supply, the Government will develop two multi-purpose dams with storage capacity
of 2.4 billion m3 along Rivers Nzoia and Nyando. Construction of 22 medium-sized
multi-purpose dams with a total capacity of 2 billion m3 will be undertaken to supply
water for domestic, livestock and irrigation use in the ASAL areas.


Page 121

3. Increase national coverage of water supply and sanitation: A key flagship project
will be the rehabilitation and expansion of the Mzima pipeline, which will be able to
supply water to all the coastal towns. Rehabilitation and expansion of urban water
supply and sanitation in the satellite towns around Nairobi, Mombasa, Kisumu,
Nakuru and Kisii will also be undertaken alongside 15 medium-size towns that have
the potential to support manufacturing and tourism activities proposed in the
economic pillar. These are Narok, Machakos, Maralal, Wajir, Wote, Hola, Chuka,
Ruiru, Athi River, Siaya, Ol Kalou, Matuu, Maua, Moi’s Bridge and Limuru. To
improve infrastructure, the following strategies will be pursued: innovations in rural
waste disposal combined with relevant incentives; encourage transition from
traditional pit latrines to (adoption of) improved versions; cross-reference to health
sector with regard to public health; and increased coverage of improved sanitation in
Kenya’s rural areas. Under Vision 2030, a research and development project will be
commissioned on improvement and application of improved toilets and community
sanitation. Promotion of the use of ventilated and improved pit (VIP) latrines and
septic tanks in rural areas will target schools adhering to the ratio of one toilet for
every 35 boys and one toilet for every 25 girls. This initiative will boost the
achievement of improved access to safe sanitation. In addition, the Government will
encourage planned rural and informal urban settlements, as indicated under the
agricultural sector of Vision 2030.


Expansion of water supply and sanitation in the proposed resort cities in Isiolo,
Lodwar and the Coast will also be undertaken to support the development envisaged
in the economic pillar. To increase national coverage of water supply, Kenya will
explore practical modalities for organised/planned settlements. In addition to other
measures to boost the supply of water to urban and rural areas, efforts will be made to
explore possibilities of trans-border sources of water.


4. Irrigation and drainage: The main flagship project in irrigation will be the

construction of the Tana delta project. The other areas of focus in irrigation will
include rehabilitation and expansion of the schemes in Bura, Hola, Kano Plains,
Nzoia (Upper, Middle and Lower), Perkera, Kerio Valley, Mwea, Taita Taveta,
Ewaso Nyiro North and Ngurumani (Kajiado) irrigation schemes. This will increase
cropland substantially and boost agriculture that was previously dependent on
rainfall. Drainage areas will also be expanded in provinces of western (Busia,
Kakamega, Butere, Mumias, Bungoma,Teso) and Central (Thika and Nyandarua -
North and South).


Supporting initiatives
A number of initiatives will be undertaken alongside the above flagship projects with the aim
of achieving the overall goals set for the water vision. These will include construction of a 54
km inter-basin water-transfer canal from Tana River to Garissa district (the Rahole canal).
The canal will be modelled on the Yatta and Njoro Kubwa canals. Consolidation of the water
reforms to strengthen the water sector to better service the needs of all users and
development of 2,000 hectares small-scale irrigation schemes in each of the 70 districts in
order to attain the overall goal of increasing the area under irrigation will also be undertaken.
To enhance water security, increased water supply through more effective harvesting
techniques and water storage will be promoted. Currently, 74 per cent of rural households
have corrugated iron sheets as the roofing materials for their dwelling units. Measures will be


Page 122

undertaken to promote rainwater harvesting to guarantee an improved water source for a
majority of these households.

Figure 4.5.4: Flagship projects for 2012

Vision 2030
Water and sanitation availability and access to all

Water resource
management
Increase fresh water
availability; establish a
monitoring programme for
water

Water storage &
harvesting
Improve water
Storage capacity

Water supply
Upgrade water supply
systems in all urban
areas and augment /
expand rural water
supplies

Strategic
thrusts

• Infrastructure, culture, gender and environment

Sanitation
Expand sewerage
coverage

Irrigation and
drainage
Expand area
under irrigation
and drainage

Cross cutting
issues

• Rehabilitate and
augment Mzima
pipeline

• Implement the
sewerage initiative

Rehabilitation and expansion of existing irrigation schemes

Consolidation of the water reforms

Formulate the remaining four catchment management strategies

Pilot ground water recharge in Turkana & Marsabit and construct a 54 km canal from Tana River to Garissa

Flagship projects

Promote the use of VIP latrines and septic tanks in rural areas to include schools adhering to the ratio of 35:1 for boys and
25:1 for girls
Increase area under irrigation and sustainability of the irrigated areas to optimum levels through training of farmers on efficient
water use and effective management

Key initiatives Upgrade water and sanitation supply infrastructure and construct new urban sewage collection, treatment and disposal systems to
service 15 identified medium towns and resort cities in the economic pillar

• Implement the Tana
delta initiative

• Expedite rehabilitation of
the Bura irrigation
scheme

Development of a water resources assessment and monitoring system

• Tana and Lake Victoria
catchment initiatives

• Rehabilitate 600 hydro
meteorological stations

• Develop 2 multi-
purpose water
conservation
structures along
Nzoia and Nyando
rivers

• Develop 22 medium-
sized multi-purpose
dams


Page 123

4.6 Environmental Management

Introduction
As already indicated, our country is planning to grow at an average rate of 10 per cent per
annum. Growth will be dependent on agriculture, tourism, manufacturing and the energy
sector, which heavily rely on exploitation of natural resources and the environment. Major
developments anticipated by Vision 2030 will affect pollution levels and generate larger
quantities of solid waste than at present. Anticipated growth in manufacturing activities will
also give rise to an increase in effluents discharged, which will require effective disposal
management. The Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASALs), which constitute approximately 80
per cent of the total land mass and support some 10 million people and more than 70 per cent
livestock, will also undergo major changes as a result of new towns, better infrastructure and
livestock based industries. Urbanisation will also occur at a rapid rate; by 2030, it is
estimated that more than 60 per cent of Kenyans will be living in cities and towns. These
changes are likely to impact adversely on the environment, which will require effective
management to ensure sustainability. All these changes will exert immense pressure on the
already declining natural resources base and on the country’s fragile environment. This
necessitates a strong policy on the environment in order to sustain economic growth while
mitigating the impacts of rapid industrialisation.

Kenya’s current institutional framework to manage the environment, however, is
characterised by fragmentation. Various aspects of the environment policy cut across
different institutions. Although the Environment Management and Coordination Act (EMCA
1999) was enacted with the primary objective of improving the coordination and
management of the environment, legislation of relevant laws and regulations has not yet been
completed. Policy and institutional reform for stricter enforcement, therefore, poses a big
challenge that must be overcome by Vision 2030.

Situation Analysis
Kenya has in the past made considerable efforts, domestically and internationally, to promote
sound environmental policies. This effort is demonstrated by the country’s hosting of the
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the United Nations Human
Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat) headquarters, the only UN headquarters in a
developing country. Kenya cannot, therefore, afford to lag behind the rest of the world in
environmental management policy. The country is a signatory to a number of Multilateral
Environment Agreements (MEAs), including Agenda 21,the Montreal Protocol, the Basel
Protocol, the Stockholm Convention , the Kyoto Protocol and CITES. Most of these
conventions have financial mechanisms for addressing various environmental challenges for
member states. Kenya will strengthen her capacity to meet international best practices
contained in these documents. The country faces the following challenges:


• Sustainable management of natural resources: Kenya’s main forests constitute five
water towers (Mt. Kenya, Aberdares Range, Mau Escarpment, Cherangany Hills and
Mt. Elgon), which cover more than 1 million hectares and form the upper catchments
of all main rivers in the country. In the past two decades, Kenya’s forests have
experienced severe destruction as a result several factors, the main one being
increased demand for agricultural land. This has, in turn, affected the hydrological
cycles in the water towers and resulted in water shortages across the country. Current


Page 124

forest cover is less than 3 per cent compared to the internationally recommended 10
per cent. Degradation of Mt Elgon and Cherangany catchment areas has resulted in
flooding in the regions around River Nzoia (Budalangi). Further, continued
degradation of the Mau escarpment, which supports the Mara reserve, will have
adverse effects on the tourism sector in the future.


• Demand for farmland and forest products: In addition, Kenya has a wide range of

ecosystems, including marine, coastal and freshwater lakes rich in biodiversity.
These ecosystems are important sources of livelihood (providing food, beverages,
medicines and oil production etcs) and have a big contribution to make in the
economic development process projected in this Vision. However, at the moment,
they remain largely undeveloped due to lack of a comprehensive policy. Invasive
alien species remain a major threat to biodiversity. The most notorious species are
prosopis Juliflora and water hyacinth. Lack of a biodiversity inventory and
inadequate procedures for access and benefit-sharing for biodiversity resources
remain key challenges for the country. With expected growth in tourism and trade,
measures to curb these threats and other unexpected ones, must be put in place.


• Wild animals in their natural habitat: Wildlife accounts for 90 per cent of safari

tourism and 75 per cent of total tourism earnings. The main challenges in wildlife
conservation are: poaching; human-wildlife conflicts; habitat destruction; and,
changes in land use patterns. The challenges are further compounded by incomplete
information on wildlife census and species dynamics. These factors are aggravated
by reduction in dispersal areas and blockage of migration corridors for areas
bordering parks. Continued reduction in wildlife and critical habitats can undermine
sustained growth in the tourism sector and reduce competitiveness with other
countries. Coastal marine resources offer a great potential to sustain a number of
economic activities, especially along the Coast, such as tourism, agriculture, fishing,
mining and water sports. However these resources are currently largely untapped. The
low capacity in the country to harness these resources poses a great challenge. To
unlock the potential, an integrated policy on the management of coastal marine
resources will be developed.


Page 125

Figure 4.6.1: Composition (in %) of Kenya’s solid waste

Source: UNEP (2005)

1
2

2
3

3
3

7
12

16

51Food waste
Paper

Plastics

Grass / wood

Ceramic

Food, paper and
plastic are
projected to
continue to be
the lead wastes
in future

Metal

Textiles

Rubber

Leather

Glass


• Medical/Hazardous Waste: Due to lack of appropriate disposal facilities, medical and
hazardous wastes continue to pose a challenge in environmental management. This
waste is disposed together with general municipal waste i.e. without segregation.
Currently, there are only two incinerators in the country (both located in Nairobi) for
destroying medical and hazardous waste. With Nairobi expected to become a regional
hub, there is a need to build necessary capacities, especially within the country’s
medical facilities, to handle all types of wastes. This will also call for the use of
market-based instruments to improve waste management, as well as public awareness
measures to promote sound waste disposal practice.


• Climate change and desertification: Although Kenya has contributed little to the

causes of global warming, it is one of the countries most affected by the disasters of
climate change. The effects are likely to be more severe in the future, unless the
international community demonstrates greater resolve. This could slow down Kenya’s
projected economic growth for two main reasons. First, the economy is heavily
dependent on climate-sensitive sectors, such as agriculture, tourism and coastal zones.
Second, the means to cope with climate hazards is weak. Already, changing climate
conditions are responsible for the melting of glaciers on Mt. Kenya, which in 1900
had 18 glaciers but now has only 7. This explains the decline in water levels in Athi
and Tana Rivers and subsequent interruption in electricity generation. Over 70 per
cent of natural disasters affecting the country are weather-related. In the recent past,
there has been an increase in frequency, magnitude and severity of disasters. The
impacts include loss of life and property and destruction of infrastructure. The
current approaches to disaster management are towards disaster response as opposed
to disaster risk reduction.


Page 126


• Harnessing of strategic natural resources: There exists great potential for Kenya to

develop bio-resources for medicinal, industrial and other products. There is a need to
develop capacity to undertake research and to regulate and develop products from
these resources. Low innovation in utilisation of natural resources coupled with
inadequate capacity to commercialise scientific research and inability to adopt new
technologies have had a negative impact on the development of natural resources for
the benefit of Kenya. Kenya will need to strengthen her institutional capacity to
collect data on land use, not just for urban and physical planning as stated elsewhere
in this document, but also for environmental analysis and policy making. Inadequate
capacity to adopt new technologies to detect the impact of resource exploitation has
contributed to lack of information for planning. Only 30 per cent of the country’s land
cover is planned and only three urban centres (50 per cent of Nairobi, Kisumu and
Kitale) have land use data. Lack of appropriate urban planning partially explains the
mushrooming of informal settlements in major towns, and poses a major challenge to
the provision of utilities. The capacity to undertake land cover mapping is weak and
therefore assessment and monitoring of strategic environmental resources remains a
challenge. With the expected urbanisation by 2030, there is a need to build data bases
and analytical capacity for resource use and management.


The vision for environment
The vision for the environmental sector is “a nation living in a clean, secure and sustainable
environment”. The vision is inspired by the principle of sustainable development and by the
need for equity in access to the benefits of a clean environment. To realise this vision, the
focus will be on four strategic thrusts:

Conservation
The country will intensify conservation of strategic natural resources (forests, water towers,
wildlife sanctuaries and marine ecosystems) in a sustainable manner without compromising
economic growth. Kenya intends to have achieved 10 per cent forest cover by 2030. In
addition, specific measures will be adopted to promote bio-prospecting activities e.g.
research and development of commercial products such as drugs, cosmetics and detergents.

Pollution and waste management
The extent of pollution and waste is correlated to GDP; in general, countries with high GDP
levels tend to generate more pollution and waste than those countries with low GDP levels.
(This trend, however, is currently being reversed in many highly developed economies, such
as Singapore, through environmentally-friendly policies and practices.) Despite the high rates
of growth envisaged by Vision 2030, Kenya will progressively apply measures to guard
against the adverse effects of increased pollution and waste experienced elsewhere.


ASALs and high-risk disaster zones
Although Kenya is not the most disaster-prone country, recent events like the El Niño
phenomena have indicated that natural disasters can erode the gains made on the economy.
Insulating development from natural hazards is therefore a priority under the Vision.


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Environmental planning and governance
Building institutional capacity in environmental planning, and improving the impact of
environmental governance will be undertaken in order to improve the overall management of
the environment.

Goals for 2012
In order to deliver on the vision, four strategic thrusts were identified for the environment
sector based on their relationship to the economic and political pillar. Concrete goals based
on the current status and identified benchmarks were set for 2012.


• Conservation: The overall goal in forest conservation is to increase current forest
cover by 50 per cent. This will include significantly improving the contribution of
forest services to the economy and providing a base for the growth of the forestry
sector. Regarding wildlife conservation, the goal is to fully protect all wildlife
ecosystems. This will sustain the anticipated high growth rate of the tourism sector.
The country will also develop an environmentally-friendly mining policy.


• Pollution and waste management: Reducing hazards related to an unhealthy

environment is the main goal under this thrust. Development of solid waste
management systems in at least five municipalities and in the proposed economic
zones will ensure a clean, healthy and secure environment. Regulations on the use of
plastic bags and other hazardous products will form another goal under this strategic
thrust.


• ASALs and high-risk disaster zones: There are three goals in this thrust, which are

aimed at reducing the effects of desertification and disasters. The specific goals are:
o Substantially reduce losses due to floods and droughts;
o Establish national trends and impacts of climate change on sensitive sectors;

and
o Pilot 5 adaptation programmes on climate change and desertification.


• Environmental planning and governance: The goals in this thrust aim to integrate

planning approaches and improve overall governance of the environment. Specific
goals include:

o Increase coverage of spatial data from the current 30 per cent to 50 per cent
for land use and 30 per cent to 70 per cent for land cover;

o Enforce all environmental regulations and standards; and
o Attract at least 5 Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM) projects per year in

the next five years.

Strategies to deliver on 2012 goals
In order to deliver the goals for 2012, specific strategies need to be implemented in each of
the four identified strategic thrusts.
Under Conservation, the main strategies to achieve the goals on conservation include:

• Rehabilitation of degraded water catchments areas while promoting on-farm forestry;
• Implementation of compensation for environmental services to include carbon

markets;
• Promote use of biotechnology in forest conservation;


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• Secure wildlife corridors and migratory routes and reverse wildlife loss;
• Brand premium parks in line with the tourism sector;
• Intensify conservation of coastal, mangrove and marine wildlife resources; and
• Develop a sustainable land use policy for common grazing areas.


Under Pollution and Solid Waste Management, three strategies have been identified to
deliver on 2012 goals:

• Develop and enforce mechanisms targeting pollution and solid waste management
regulations;

• Establish a national air quality monitoring system; and
• Apply market-oriented instruments to regulate the use of plastic bags.


Under Reforms in Environmental Disaster Policy, the following four specific strategies have
been identified to realise the goals in this thrust

• Shift policy from disaster response to disaster-risk education;
• Intensify research on impact of climatic changes in Kenya and develop appropriate

policy responses for each geographic zone;
• Aggressively promote adaptation activities in high-risk disaster zones;
• Formulate a national disaster strategy for seismic events and pestilences affecting

human and animal habitation; and
• Undertake measures to integrate climate change into development planning.


Under Environmental Planning and Governance, the following strategies will be pursued:

• Upgrade the capacity of institutions for enhanced environmental data and information
coverage and application;

• Develop a policy framework to harmonise environment-related laws and institutions,
and promote the capacity for collective enforcement of environmental standards;

• Strengthen institutional capacities of multi-sectoral planning and strengthen linkages
between institutions of planning and environmental management;

• Establish a baseline on the state of the environment for future environmental
planning; and

• Strengthen negotiating capabilities through top talent development and compliance
with Multilateral Environment Agreements (MEAs).


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Figure 4.6.2: Overall goals and strategies to achieve environmental goals

• Shift from disaster response
to disaster risk reduction;

• Bridge the gap between
science of climate change
and policymaking;

• Aggressively promote
adaptation activities to
climate change

Vision for 2030
A nation living in a clean, secure and sustainable

environment

Strategic thrusts

Strategies

Conservation Pollution and waste
management

ASAL and high-risk
disaster zones

Environmental planning
and governance

• Rehabilitation of degraded
forest areas and promotion
of farm forestry;

• User compensation for
environmental services;

• Promote biotechnology;
• Secure wildlife corridors

and migratory routes;
• Improve security of

boundaries of protected
areas;

• Intensify exploration of new
minerals;

• Increase extraction of
marine resources

• Develop and enforcement of
pollution and waste
management and hazardous
waste regulations;

• Design and application of
economic
incentive/disincentives;

• Public private partnership for
municipal waste;

• Reduce importation of oil with
high Sulphur content

• Upgrade capacity for
enhanced geo-information
coverage and application;

• Harmonize environmental
related laws;

• Strengthen institutional
capacities;

• Use of incentives for
environmental
compliance;

• Strengthen negotiation
skills on MEAs and
enhance coordination of
their implementation

• Establish fully functional
solid waste management
systems in 5
municipalities and in the
special economic zones
(SEZs)

• Sustain enforcement of
new regulations on
plastic bags

• Achieve significant reduction
in losses arising from floods
and droughts

• National trends and impacts
assessment determined

• Implement 5 adaptation
projects

• Ensure that all
environmental regulations
and standards are enforced

• Attract 5 CDM projects per
year

Increase forest cover from
less than 3% to more than
4%
Ensure that all wildlife
ecosystems are fully
protected
Incorporate natural resource
in national accounts
Identify 2 new natural
resources

Promote and safeguard the state of environment for economic growth
Overall

Specific

G
oa

ls
fo

r
20

12

• Education for sustainable developmentCross cutting
issues


Flagship projects


1. Water catchment management: This project entails full rehabilitation of the five water
towers of Mau Escarpment, Mt. Kenya, Aberdare Ranges, Cherangany Hills and Mt.
Elgon.

2. Secure wildlife corridors and migratory routes: Most wildlife corridors and migratory
routes have been interfered with by human activities. It will be necessary to reclaim
them if wildlife is to continue providing the base for the tourism sector.

3. Develop a national waste management system: This will include relocation of the
Dandora dump site in Nairobi and the establishment of a solid waste management
system for the City of Nairobi on a public-private partnership basis. This will set a
trend to be followed by other municipalities.

4. Land cover and land use mapping: This initiative calls for accurate and continuously
updated mapping of land use patterns in Kenya, and of tracking developments. This
project will also entail undertaking both livestock and wildlife censuses. It cuts across
the economic and social projects envisaged under Vision 2030.


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Figure 4.6.3: Flagship projects and initiatives

Vision for 2030
A nation living in a clean, secure and sustainable

environment

Strategic thrusts

Conservation Pollution and waste
management

ASAL and high-risk
disaster zones

Environmental planning
and governance

• Education for sustainable developmentCross cutting
issues

• Land cover and land use mapping

Carbon offset scheme initiative

Plastic bags regulation imitative

The prosopis control initiative

Adaptation measures initiative

Flagship
projects

Early warning system initiative

Key initiatives Farmland and dry land tree planting initiative

• Water catchment
management

• Secure wildlife
migratory routes

• Relocation of Dandora dump site

Incentives measures initiative

The jatropha initiative

Coastal zones and marine assessment initiative

Exploration initiative

The Nairobi river basin initiative

Transforming DRSRS


Initiatives
The following ten initiatives will be undertaken to support implementation of the above
flagship projects:

1. Farmland and dryland tree-planting initiative: This initiative will seek to introduce
high-value tree species at farm level in order to contribute to the targeted forest cover
of 4 per cent by 2012. The initiative will introduce commercial tree species in ASALs
in order to control desertification and improve livelihoods.

2. Carbon offset scheme: The initiative will exploit opportunities within the Kyoto
Protocol on the establishment of voluntary carbon markets in order to promote
conservation and compensation for environmental services.

3. The prosopis initiative: This initiative seeks to combat the threats posed by the
prosopis (mathenge) tree species.

4. Disaster preparedness: Securing funding from global funding mechanisms to
implement adaptation programmes in ASALs and high-risk zones. This will be
accompanied by an improved disaster-preparedness strategy, including an early
warning system covering climatic events (e.g. droughts, floods, pestilences, seismic
occurrences, etc.), as well as initiation of a public awareness, avoidance and
preparedness campaign.

5. Capacity for environmental and natural resource information management: Systems
for managing data and information related to the environment and natural resources in
the country are generally weak. This hampers proper planning for the environment
sector. Vision 2030 seeks to build necessary capacity to facilitate planning for the
environmental sector and facilitate mainstreaming of the environment into the
national planning process.

6. Use of market-based environmental instruments: Design and implement selective
incentives/disincentives that will reward good practices in environmental


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management and penalise those that harm the environment. Both economic and non-
economic measures will be considered.

7. Sustainable development indictors: Development of a framework to enable the
country assesses progress in the realisation of suitable development.

8. Coastal zone and marine assessment: The initiative involves assessing the potential
opportunities provided by Kenya’s coastal ecosystem and to produce a databank to be
used by investors and regulatory agencies.

9. Exploration initiative: Undertake an accurate and detailed geological mapping of the
country. This will provide information that may lead to the discovery of new natural
minerals of commercial value. This initiative will, therefore, involve intensifying
ongoing exploration for minerals and crude oil in the country.

10. The Nairobi River Basin Initiative: Clean the Nairobi River and establish water-front
business and recreation spots. This initiative will be replicated in other towns,
including Kisumu, Mombasa and Nakuru.


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4.7 Gender, Youth and Vulnerable Groups

Gender Equity
Vision 2030 mainstreams gender equity in all aspects of society. In this regard, gender equity
will be addressed by making fundamental changes in four key areas, namely: opportunity;
empowerment; capabilities; and vulnerabilities. Women are disadvantaged in accessing
labour markets and productive resources. Women have been disempowered at the
household, community and national levels. They are also under-represented in social and
political leadership. The capabilities of women have also not been developed to full potential
due to limited access to capital, education, training and health care. Many Kenyans
(particularly women) are exposed to vulnerabilities from civil and domestic violence,
economic shocks and environmental hazards. Although some progress has been made in
addressing gender disparities, a lot of effort still needs to be made. Furthermore, given that
women play a critical role in the socio-economic development of any nation, there is an
urgent need to remove all obstacles that hinder their contribution to national development.
Under this Vision, specific policy measures will be taken to correct the glaring gender gaps
in access to and control of resources, economic opportunities, and in power and political
voice.

Situation analysis
As discussed above, women still face significant challenges as shown in Figure 4.7.1. It is
recognised that women are under-represented at all major decision-making levels within
Government. There are also large wage gaps to the disadvantage of women and only a small
portion can be explained by gender differences in education, work experience or job
characteristics. For instance, women hold a mere 16 per cent of top positions in Government
(job groups Q, R, S, T, U). On the other hand, women are confined to the bottom of the
public service with 74 per cent representation in job groups A, B, C, E, and F.


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Figure 4.7.1: Representation of Kenyan women in decision making

Source: Ministry of Gender

Male (%)

73

81

87

92

94

100

Cabinet
Members

Members of
Parliament

Assistant
Ministers

Permanent
Secretaries

Diplomats

Provincial
Commissioners

27

19

13

8

6

0

Female (%)


Income levels of Kenyans are far lower than those of comparable countries, while poverty is
also an area of concern. In urban areas, for example, the poverty rate among women stands at
46 per cent compared to 30 per cent among men. Kenyan women also lag behind their male
counterparts in the area of empowerment. For example, Kenya has the lowest representation
of women in Parliament compared to countries such as South Africa and Malaysia (Figure
4.7.2). Furthermore, the contraceptive usage rate among Kenyan women is lower than that of
comparable countries. In addition, the country also lags behind in the number of births
attended by skilled health personnel. As indicated in the discussion on the health sector, the
Vision seeks to address these challenges. While crime in general has been falling, reported
cases of assault and battery, as well as rape and/or attempted rape, have been on the increase
– an issue that the Government is addressing in collaboration with concerned civic groups
and other stakeholders.


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Figure 4.7.2: Key gender indicators for selected countries (2005)

Source: Ministry of Gender; HDI Report; Team analysis

Kenya (%)

64

59

7

39

43

Contraceptive
prevalence rate

Seats in
Parliament

Adult female
literacy rate

Adult male
literacy rate

Births attended
by skilled
personnel

92

85

9

55

97

Malaysia (%)

84

81

33

56

84

South Africa (%)


Figure 4.7.3: Condom usage and HIV prevalence

Source: HDI Report; Team analysis

Kenya (%)

6

47

25

Condom usage
among men

HIV prevalence

Condom usage
among women

Uganda (%) Tanzania (%)

7

47

42

7

55

53


Page 135

Strategies to reduce gender disparities and address vulnerabilities
In order to reduce gender disparities, a number of strategies will be implemented under the
Vision. Key among them will be:

• Providing financial support to women to raise their incomes and reduce the gap in
estimated earned incomes between men and women;

• Increasing the number of women in Parliament;
• Giving priority to female employees in the public sector in order to attain at least 30

per cent representation in recruitment, promotion and appointment of women to all
decision making levels;

• Increasing the proportion of women using family planning methods from 39 per cent
to 70 per cent;

• Doubling the number of births attended by skilled health personnel from 42 per cent
to 84 per cent;

• Increasing adult literacy rates of men and women from 64 per cent and 59 per cent
respectively to 70 per cent;

• Reducing gender-based violence;
• Reducing the rate of high-risk sex through increased access to safe sex methods e.g.

use of condoms for men and women from 47 per cent and 25 per cent respectively to
70 per cent; and

• Reducing the male and female population below the poverty line to 25 per cent.

Flagship projects

• Increase funds and training available to women entrepreneurs; and
• Increase women representation at the executive level in all branches of Government

and the private sector close to that of the best practices in the middle income
countries.


Initiatives
To support the implementation of the above-mentioned flagship projects, the Government
will pursue the following two initiatives:

• Gender mainstreaming in Government policies, plans, budgets and programmes; and
• Affirmative action for 30 per cent representation of women at all decision making

levels.


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Figure 4.7.4: Goals and strategies for 2012

Vision for 2030
Men and women enjoying a high quality of life and equal

opportunities

Strategic thrusts

Strategies

Opportunity and empowerment Capabilities Vulnerabilities

• Increase the capacity of the Police
to handle cases of violence against
women

• Eliminate retrogressive cultural
practices (e.g. FGM)

• Increase employment
opportunities

• Implement affirmative action
• Increase social amenities and

improve quality of services

• Improve access to healthcare
• Train more nurses, doctors and

community health workers
• Expand adult literacy programmes

• Reduce infant mortality rates
and under five mortality rates
as per the targets identified in
the health sector;

• Increase level of access to
family planning methods from
39% - 70%;

• Double number of births
attended by skilled health
personnel from 42% - 84%;

• Increase adult literacy rates of
men and women as per the
targets identified in the
education sector, and employ
additional

• Reduce gender-based violence;
Reduce the rate of high-risk sex
through increased access to safe
sex methods (e.g. use of condoms
for men and women from 47% and
25% respectively to 70%);

• Reduce the population below
poverty line for men and women
from 48% and 50% respectively in
rural areas and from 30% and 46%
respectively in urban areas to 25%
for all

• Increase estimated earned
incomes (purchasing power
parity) of Kenyan men & women
from $1,242 and $1,037
respectively to $3,000 for both
men and women;

• Increase proportion of women in
Parliament from 7% to 30% and
implement 30% representation in
recruitment, promotion &
appointment of women at all
decision-making levels;

• Decrease from 50% - 38% the
proportion of people traveling
more than 5Km to the nearest
social amenities

Goals for 2012

Operationalise gender divisions in all ministriesCross cutting
issues

Domesticate, implement and enforce all international resolutions related to women, the youth and vulnerable groups

Generate gender disaggregated data for all socio-economic indicators and conduct a national baseline survey

Build capacity of government technocrats on gender mainstreaming

Affirmative action to achieve 30% representation in all decision-making processes


Vulnerable Groups
Vulnerable groups include widows and widowers, orphans and children at risk, persons with
disabilities, under-age mothers, the poor of the poorest, internally and externally displaced
persons and the elderly. All these groups are faced with multiple challenges in their daily life,
such as high levels of poverty and various forms of deprivation. The majority of orphans in
the country, for instance, are under the care of elderly grandparents or relatives, who
themselves are struggling to get by,

Situation analysis
Savings for old age in Kenya is relatively low at about 18 per cent compared to over 45 per
cent for comparable countries. As Figure 4.7.5 shows, the country also has a relatively high
dependency rate, with economically-inactive age groups (i.e. 0-14 and 65+) comprising a
large percentage of the population.


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Figure 4.7.5: Kenya’s dependency and refugee burden

* Includes those below age 14 and those over 65 years
Source: Ministry of Gender, Sports, Culture & Social Services; UNHCR

33
373738

46

Kenya India South
Africa

Malaysia Chile

% of population

Thousands

Nearly 50%
of Kenya’s
population

is
dependent

Economically
inactive age
groups*

Refugee
burden

Kenya India South
Africa

Malaysia Chile

Kenya has
an

excessive
refugee
burden

125
28

163

240


As illustrated in Figure 4.7.5, Kenya hosts nearly 240,000 refugees, which is more than the
number of refugees hosted by countries such as India, South Africa, Malaysia and Chile. In
addition to being exposed to health, environmental and security risks, most of these refugees
cannot feed or clothe themselves. In some cases, they are, perceived as a major source of risk
to the local population.

Strategies to reduce vulnerabilities
The Government will use the following strategies to address challenges facing various
categories of vulnerable groups:

• Restructure pension schemes to increase savings for the old and reduce dependency;
• Encourage savings and other investments among economically-active Kenyans to

reduce the burden of economic dependency among the under-14 and over-65 age
groups;

• Expand pro-poor financial services e.g. through microfinance institutions and village
financial associations;

• Encourage the remittance of more money from Kenyans living abroad, in order to
reach a target of 5 per cent of the GDP;

• Intervene for peace in the region and resolve land issues so as to reduce both the
influx of refugees from neighbouring countries and the number of internally displaced
persons within the country;

• Enforce the Children’s Act to eliminate child labour as well as other retrogressive
practices causing vulnerabilities among children;

• Initiate programmes geared towards reducing deaths caused by HIV and AIDS, road
carnage and other killer diseases to bring down the number of orphans;


Page 138

• Empower people with special needs to make them self-supporting; and
• Enhance support to orphans and vulnerable children (OVCs) to reduce dependency.


Flagship projects
The two flagship projects to be implemented alongside the above strategies are:

• Establishment of a consolidated social protection fund for cash transfers to OVCs and
the elderly; and

• Full implementation (including appropriate budgetary allocations) of the Disability
Fund.


Figure 4.7.6: Goals and strategies for 2012

Vision for 2030
Improved livelihoods of vulnerable persons at household,

community and national levels

Strategic thrusts

Strategies

Opportunity Capabilities and empowerment Vulnerabilities

• Enforce anti-child labour laws
• Eliminate retrogressive cultural

practices e.g. early child marriages
• Significantly bring down the number

of deaths from HIV/AIDS, road
crashes and other major killers

• Enhance education opportunities for
people with special needs

• Ensure adequate representation of
vulnerable groups in decision-
making

• Restructure pension schemes to
increase contributions

• Encourage savings and stimulate
other investments among
economically active Kenyans

• Build more financial institutions in
rural areas for access and
increase savings by rural folk

• Improve access to food and
healthcare services by vulnerable
groups

• Implement measures to increase
long-term international capital
inflows

• Leverage remittances as a key
source of long-term capital

• Upscale regional peace initiatives
and aim at speedy resolution of
land and other domestic resource
conflicts

• Increase remittances by
Kenyans in the Diaspora;

• Reduce the number of refugee
influx into the country from
240,000 to 100,000

• Eliminate paid child labour
especially in the agriculture sector;

• Reduce the number of orphans
from 2.4 million to 1.4 million;

• Empower people with special
needs (e.g. the 25.7% who are
lame and 18.4% who are mentally
disabled)

• Increase pension contribution
from 18% - 40%;

• Reduce poverty among the
urban and rural 56+ year olds
from 48% and 55% respectively
to 25%;

• Reduce the economic
dependency among the under
14’s and over 65’s from 46% to
25%

Goals for 2012

Establish a social protection policy on the most vulnerable members of societyCross cutting
issues

Review and enact a Mental Health policy

Develop and enact resettlement policies


Youth
Kenya’s population is predominantly young with the age group 15-35 years accounting for
approximately38 per cent of the total population. It is at this age that much of the human
capital is formed. Consequently, human development strategies implemented during this
transitional period have long-term impacts on the structure and quality of human capital.
Young people, today and in the future, will be the principal stakeholders and beneficiaries of
the Vision. Therefore, issues affecting young people will be fully integrated and harmonised
into every aspect of public policy and across all ministries and Government agencies. Under
the Vision, specific policies and interventions will be implemented to fully develop their
potential as well as prepare and engage them in the socio-economic development of the
country. The interventions will cover the following fundamental areas: (i) Building capacity
and empowerment to equip youth to engage in productive activities; (ii) Creating
employment opportunities; (iii) Providing the youth with the necessary support (e.g.,
financial and market linkages) and; (iv) Supporting initiatives that mould character; (v)


Page 139

Strengthening programmes to advance youth health and well-being and; (vi) Giving the
youth a voice to articulate their issues as well as participate in decision making.


Challenges
Kenyan youth face many challenges. These include limited opportunities for educational
advancement and technical training, limited opportunities for employment, high levels of
poverty, lack of finance or access to credit, disproportionate exposure to high health and
social risk (e.g. HIV/AIDS, drug and substance abuse, and crime), and lack of opportunities
and mechanisms to participate in decisions that affect their lives.

Situation Analysis
Kenyan youth have a higher dependency rate compared to comparable countries, which is
attributed to unemployment, limited skills, and lack of resources and opportunities. As a
consequence, many youth are tempted to engage in crime, drug abuse and prostitution,
among other vices, and are also likely to enter into early marriage. Lack of resources and
opportunities also increase the vulnerability of youth.


Figure 4.7.7: Dependency ratio

Source: Team analysis

Kenya

South Africa

India

Chile

Malaysia

Country
Major causes of Kenya’s
high dependency

Young dependants
% of working population

0.5

0.5

0.4

0.5

0.8

High unemployment

Limited skills

Lack of resources

Lack of adequate
opportunities


Page 140

Figure 4.7.8: Youth health and social risks

Source: Team analysis

5.3

4.9

2.8

1.7Kenya

South Africa

Tanzania

Uganda

Condom usage by sexually active female
youth aged between 15 – 24
%

42

26

20

23

Pregnancies among teenagers <18 years
%


Strategies to address challenges of the youth

1. Targeted programmes to prepare the youth : These will include:
• Training the youth in technical, vocational and entrepreneurial skills to increase

their productivity and enable them to participate fully in productive activities;
• Creative skills to deal with advances in technology; and
• Behavioural and life skills to mould their character and help them make

appropriate choices in life.
2. Revision of education and training curriculum at all levels to enable the production of

skills that are demand-driven and to mould character and appropriate behaviour.
3. Rehabilitation of youth polytechnics to raise the levels of technical and

entrepreneurial skills produced to support economic development.
4. Development of education programmes to upgrade skills of non-formal and out-of-

school operators;
5. Development of targeted programmes to:

• Reduce youth unemployment (thus reducing their engagement in criminal
activities);

• Increase space for youth to participate in positions of leadership;
• Reduce new HIV/AIDS infections, as well as teenage pregnancies and drug

abuse among the youth;
• Promote sports, music and the film industries so as to enable the youth

develop their talents in these areas, thus expanding their income opportunities.
6. A national programme will be introduced to recognise and reward talent and create

role models.


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Flagship projects for 2012
In order to give the youth a chance to excel in various aspects of life, the following key
flagship projects will be implemented:

1. Youth empowerment centres: Rehabilitation or construction of at least one youth
empowerment centre in each constituency based on local conditions;

2. Sports: Establishment of a sports lottery fund and an international academy of sports
to develop and nurture sporting talent; and

3. Music: Establishment of a programme to identify, nurture and develop music and
performing arts talent. In addition, a “National Hall of Fame” will be established to
honour contributions in sports, film, culture, the arts and innovation, and to recognise
special talent. This applies to all age brackets.


Initiatives
The following initiatives will be implemented alongside the flagship projects:

1. Development and/or rehabilitation of standard stadiums in every province to
encourage youth participation in sports;

2. Encouragement of youth to participate in environmental conservation (e.g. by
planting trees) to increase afforestation and to engage youth in productive activities;

3. Increase of allocations to secondary and tertiary level bursary programmes to provide
more opportunities to youth (under education sector); and

4. Integration of youth empowerment programmes with other community development
activities at the constituency level to leverage their skills and provide opportunities
for their full participation in nation building.


Figure 4.7.9: Goals and strategies for 2012

Vision for 2030
A responsible, globally competitive and prosperous youth

Strategic thrusts

Strategies

Opportunity, capacity building and
empowerment

Capabilities Second chances

• Engage the youth in gainful
participation in the society (e.g. tree
planting for pay);

• Rehabilitation e.g. of drug addicts,
prison criminals etc;

• Building youth empowerment
centres in all constituencies (with
sports, theatre, library facilities);

• Tax rebates on film and music
equipment as well as instruments,
and performance tax exemption to
boost youth participation in film and
music industry

• Increase post primary bursary
allocations and facilities with
emphasis on the girls;

• Revise the curriculum and create
courses that will build relevant
skills to the job market;

• Increase youth employment
opportunities;

• Increase Youth participation in
decision-making and community
service

• Encourage wholesome family
units and public institutions e.g.
schools that promote social
values and norms consistent with
Vision 2030;

• Promote health education among
youth

• Reduce percentage of young
convicts as well as new
HIV/AIDS infections among the
youth;

• Reduce youth dependency ratio
from 0.8 – 0.5;

• Reduce teenage pregnancies,
tobacco & drug abuse
prevalence

• Nurture sports, drama and music
talent in young people for
economic empowerment

• Increase post primary education
transition, retention & completion
rates as well as increase the
talent pool from the current
66,000 graduates to 461,000;

• Raise levels of entrepreneurial,
technical, managerial, creativity,
leadership and life skills by 70%
and increase numbers of youth in
positions of responsibility by 50%;

• Reduce youth unemployment
from 75% to 35%

Goals for 2012

Enact a national youth policy and revamp the national youth service (NYS)yCross cutting
issues

Enact the Sports Bill

Implement a national cultural policy (incorporating the national music policy, a national institute of music, a culture
commission of Kenya, a Kenya national music and culture archive/library, etc) to facilitate development of the cultural
industry


Page 142

4.8 Housing and Urbanisation

Kenya Vision 2030 aims to provide the country’s population with adequate and decent
housing in a sustainable environment. Improvement in the quality of life of all Kenyans – the
supreme goal of Vision 2030 – cannot come about if large sections of the rural and urban
population are inadequately housed. According to Government surveys, the quality and
adequacy of low-income housing is better in rural areas than in urban areas; rural houses are
less crowded and are more likely to have better access to sanitation facilities than houses
located in dense urban slums, (See Table 4.8.4) Overcrowding, lack of adequate sanitation
and pollution in urban slums pose serious health risks to residents. Unplanned informal
settlements, on the other hand, pose a serious challenge to the socio-economic development
of the country. Kenya’s urban areas have over the years suffered from poor planning, which
has resulted in the proliferation of informal settlements with poor housing and little or no
infrastructure services. Like most African countries, Kenya has been urbanising rapidly;
while an estimated 20.4 per cent of her population resided in urban areas by 2005, by 2030
the proportion of the Kenyan population living in urban areas is estimated to reach 60 per
cent as shown in Figure 4.8.. This rapid urbanisation will henceforth be guided by a planned
programme in urbanisation and housing that is also consistent with the path of economic and
social investments anticipated by Vision 2030. It is based on the belief that with the right
urban-planning strategy, it will be possible to change the lives of millions of Kenyans for the
better.

Figure 4.8.1: Population projections, 1999-2030


19%Urban population
%

26% 32% 38% 47% 56% 63% 68%

26.6

20221999

27.1

20172012

22.7
25.3 26.5

2007 2027

22.3

2032

20.2

2030

24.6

Urban population in millions
Rural population in millions

23.1
16.9

5.4 9.0
12.3

38.2
43.4

31.7

28.2Total Population
Millions

34.3 38.8 43.9 49.7 56.2 60.5 63.6

Urban dwellers
exceed half the
country’s
population and
overtake rural
dwellers

* Based on projections from 1999 National Census
Source: CBS


Nairobi alone accounts for between 40 and 50 per cent of Kenya’s GDP. There is a positive
correlation between levels of urbanisation and national economic development. Countries


Page 143

that are highly urbanised tend to have higher incomes, more stable economies and stronger
institutions. Urban-based economic activities account for more than 85 per cent of GNP in
high income countries and more than 70 per cent of GNP in middle income countries.
Urbanisation relieves pressure on available agricultural land by creating non-agricultural
employment and business opportunities. But if not managed properly, urbanisation could
bring about serious social and economic problems, including increased congestion,
unemployment, environmental degradation, high crime rates, poor infrastructure services,
and proliferation of informal settlements with extremely poor living standards. Kenya has so
far been unable to plan adequately in order to accommodate her increasing urban population.
It must now do so under the Vision 2030. One of the challenges the country faces in this
regard is that the rate of urbanisation has been much faster than the rate at which affordable
quality housing has been provided.

The Kenyan housing sector is characterised by inadequacy of affordable and decent housing,
low-level of urban home ownership, extensive and inappropriate dwelling units, including
slums and squatter settlements. It is estimated that out of a total 150,000 housing units
required annually in urban areas, only an estimated 35,000 are produced. The shortage of
housing for low-income households is particularly acute in urban areas, since only an
estimated 6,000 units, or 20 per cent of the total number of all houses produced, cater for this
group. This is attributed to under-investment in low- and middle-cost housing by both the
public and private sectors. Other constraints to the availability of quality housing include an
outdated legal and regulatory framework, which affects the amount of serviced land available
to private and public sector developers, poor governance, and inadequate financing to buyers
and developers. The housing shortage affects both the owner-occupier and the supply of
adequate rental housing by the market. This scenario, coupled with an increasing urban
population, demands that the twin problems of housing and urbanisation be urgently
addressed so that Kenya can realise her vision of becoming “a globally competitive and
prosperous nation with a high quality of life by 2030”.

The housing sector has a critical role to play in the achievement of the goals envisaged by
Vision 2030. Housing construction is a labour-intensive activity that will create jobs for
youth and the unemployed. Construction also has strong linkages with other sectors of the
economy. Proper planning and effective management of and increased investment in our
urban areas are critical for the realisation of this objective. The housing sector is one of the
principal levers for creating jobs among the youth, driving economic growth, and tapping the
opportunities in linkages with other sectors. The housing sector has a local content of more
than 90 per cent, implying that investment in housing and integrated planning will have
direct positive effects on the national income by triggering forward and backward linkages
through additional investments in manufacturing of building materials, transport, marketing
and infrastructure development.

Situation analysis
Despite the fact that Kenya’s urban centres have been growing rapidly, – and are expected to
continue growing at the annual rate of 3.9 per cent in the 2005-2010 period – inadequate
capacity combined with difficult economic circumstances in the past have hindered the
design of solutions to challenges brought about by rapid urbanisation. Urban areas have
grown haphazardly, most without physical development plans, which have caused economic
inefficiency and environmental degradation and led to poor living conditions. Planning, when
done, has tended to react to urban development, rather direct it. Only 30 per cent of Kenya’s


Page 144

urban towns are planned, partly due to inadequate planning capacity and rapid population
growth. Of the total 175 local authorities in the country, only 4, namely Nairobi, Mombasa,
Kisumu and Eldoret, have planning units within their establishments. As a result, Kenyan
towns have been grappling with unplanned settlements, traffic congestion, pollution, and
inefficient and costly public transport systems. The challenge is to come up with realistic
strategies that promote sustainable urbanisation by creating functional, vibrant and efficient
urban centres that support the unlocking of Kenya’s development potential.

The state of housing
With the demand for new housing units in urban areas currently standing at 150,000 units
annually and only 23 per cent of this demand being met, the national gap is big and requires
an urgent solution. As shown in figure 4.8.2, the shortfall is more acute among low-income
households whose present demand is about 48 per cent of total new houses required in
Kenya.

Figure 4.8.2: Housing production and demand by income categories

Present Housing production

High income
35%

Low er
middle
15%

Upper
middle

Low Income
2%

Present Housing Demand

Low er
middle
35%

Low Income
48%

High income
2%

Upper middle
15%


Source: Department of Housing, 2006

Currently, more than 80 per cent of new houses produced are for high and upper middle-
income earners. Because more than 60 per cent of the Kenyan population is younger than 25
years, it is clear that the demand for adequate housing will rise steadily as those aged 20 and
below reach adulthood and start family life.

At present, however, the Kenyan urban housing sector is characterised by large urban slums
without proper sanitation. Informal settlements house 60 per cent of urban population. In
rural areas, the quality of housing is inadequate and access to clean drinking water and
energy is low.

Table 4.8.1: Distribution by roofing material in rural and urban areas
Corrugated

iron sheets
Tiles Concrete Asbestos

sheet
Grass Makuti Tin Others

KENYA 73.6 2.4 3.4 0.6 14.8 3.2 0.3 1.7
RURAL 74.0 0.5 0.2 0.1 19.5 3.3 0.3 2.2
URBAN 72.0 8.1 13.3 2.1 0.8 2.8 0.4 0.2
Source: Kenya Integrated Household Budget Survey (2006)


Page 145

Table 4.8.2: Distribution by walling material in rural and urban areas
Stone Brick /

Block
Mud /
Wood

Wood
only

Corrugated
iron sheet

Grass Tin Others

KENYA 14.3 16.7 45.4 10.2 3.5 2.9 0.3 1.6
RURAL 6.5 14.5 54.0 12.1 2.3 3.7 0.2 2.0
URBAN 37.9 23.3 19.4 4.7 7.0 0.4 0.4 0.2
Source: Kenya Integrated Household Budget Survey (2006)

Approximately 35 per cent of Kenyan households live in one-room housing units. The
situation is worse in urban areas where 59 per cent of households live in one roomed
dwelling units.

Table 4.8.3: Percentage of persons accommodated and the number of rooms
One room 2 rooms 3 rooms 4 – 5 rooms
KENYA 35.1 27.6 22.4 12.8
RURAL 27.2 31.0 25.6 14.1
URBAN 59.0 17.2 12.9 8.9
Source: Kenya Integrated Household Budget Survey (2006)

To adequately provide shelter for the projected population of 60 million by 2030, and
assuming the household size of 5 members per household, the projected housing demand for
the country would be more than 12 million quality dwelling units by the year 2030.
Furthermore, more than 60 per cent of Kenyans will be living in urban areas by the year
2030. Kenya’s urban population is currently only 20 per cent of total population compared
with 48 per cent in Indonesia, 59 per cent in South Africa and 67 per cent in Malaysia
(Figure 4.8.3). This is the trend Kenya’s urban population is expected to take by 2030.

Figure 4.8.3: Urban population trends

Urban population as a % of total population (2005)

Source: Team analysis

26
28

40
38

2000 2030

Nairobi’s population as % of Kenya’s
total urban population (2000 – 2030)

• ~60 million – Kenya’s population in 2030 (assuming av. household size of 5)
• ~38% – Estimated fraction of Kenya’s urban population living in Nairobi in

2030
• ~12 million – Projected demand for quality dwelling units in 2030

59

48

67

20.1Kenya

Malaysia

Indonesia

South
Africa 2010 2020


Page 146

Figure 4.8.4: Housing and urbanisation situation in Kenya (2005)

Source: Team analysis

• Large slums and
informal settlements

• Poor sanitary facilities

Occupancy:59% of
households in urban
areas live in 1-roomed
dwelling units.

Urban population (2005)

• Higher demand for low
income houses but low
production

• Higher production of
high income houses

Quality of houses: 18% of
houses are still grass-
thatched. Generally, the
larger majority (53% or ~2.7
million) of houses are in poor
condition.

• Low capacity for urban
and regional planning

Housing
&

urbanization

• Lack of physical,
strategic and
investment plans

59%

20%

67%

48%

Kenya Malaysia Indonesia S. Africa

90.5%

13.5%

Kenya Malaysia

Houses with electricity


Challenges and opportunities
As already indicated, Kenya’s housing sector is grappling with several challenges. These
include a huge gap between demand and supply of residential houses, inadequate investment
in the housing sector, low access to finance by buyers and developers and lack of a
supportive legal and regulatory framework. The key challenges in urban development and
housing facing Kenyans as the country develops to 2030 include the following:


• Inadequate capacity for urban and regional planning: The growth in unplanned
settlements in our urban areas, and property development in excess of the carrying
capacity of available infrastructure (e.g. roads, water and sanitation) are the most
obvious evidence of failure to plan urban development and enforce the designated
laws and standards. The problem has been compounded by a highly centralised
framework of urban and regional planning that does not give sufficient authority to
county and municipal governments. Local authorities also lack an adequate capacity
to plan and manage urban development. Adequate recruitment and deployment of
urban and regional planners to local authorities, which authorise most building
construction done in Kenya, is, therefore, a major challenge to achieving the goal of a
well-housed population living in an environmental- secure urban environment as set
out in Vision 2030.


• Insufficient serviced land: One of the reasons behind overcrowded urban development

and a steady rise in property values and rents can be traced to insufficient supply of
serviced land. The pace at which land with the necessary infrastructure (e.g. roads,
water and electricity) has been made available lags behind the demand of property
developers, including individual households. Some of that demand can be met by the


Page 147

provision of serviced land by the central government or by local authorities. But
private investment also has a vital role to play in that process. Investment based on
private-public partnership is one way of overcoming this handicap, as private capital
can be applied to develop infrastructure in support of housing.


• Concentration of property development in the high-income category: Although the

demand for housing is most acute in the middle- and low-income categories, the
property market in Kenya has responded most to the needs of high-income
homeowners. Some of the reasons behind this include availability of mortgage
finance to Kenyans at the higher income end and insufficient serviced land that could
be set aside for low-income housing. In addition, the cost of building materials has
been prohibitive given the rigid building codes which insist on the use of permanent
materials (stones, concrete etc.) that have been used in the past, leaving out the new
technologies that use less-costly construction inputs. Outdated building codes and
standards therefore represent a handicap in the rapid provision of housing for home-
ownership or for rent (at the middle- and low-income end) that Kenyans will
increasing require as incomes rise under the economic and social development
programmes of the Vision.


• Legal and administrative reforms: Changes in the building code, however, are just

one aspect of the legal and administrative reforms that the country needs in order to
meet the demands of housing and urbanisation in future. Others reforms include a
comprehensive housing sector legal framework and reduction in the the multiple
approval procedures in property development which investors face today. The process
is far too cumbersome for developers who are required to have multiple approval
permits from local authorities, land offices, and public utility bodies (e.g. Kenya
Power and Lighting Company). The Government has undertaken measures to
simplify the multiple permits and licensing system that traders and business investors
face. This should be now applied to the housing sector too. None of the legal and
administrative problems facing property developers, however, have been as
challenging as the inaccuracies in our land registries and fraudulent behaviour in the
registration and issuance of title deeds. The Government has already taken measures
to streamline and computerise land registries and to minimise fraud. This process
now needs to be accelerated and scaled down to the local authorities.


• Supply of affordable finance for mortgages and property development: Under the

ERS, interest rates in Kenya have fallen considerably, settling at the prime rate of
approximately 6 per cent in 2007. However, the cost of long-term capital for
construction of rental property is still prohibitive. The same applies to mortgage
finance, especially for middle- and low-income housing. Secure mortgage
instruments need to be developed.


• Lack of adequate construction capacity: Firms and individuals in the informal sector

construct the vast majority of property developed in Kenya, even though the number
of companies in the formal construction sector has not increased significantly since
the 1970s. The withdrawal of many (large foreign) construction companies from
Kenya in the 1990s has aggravated the situation. Weak capacity in high quality
construction is, therefore, yet another constraint in urban development and the supply


Page 148

of necessary housing that Kenya will need; it needs to be addressed. There is an
urgent need to support the emergence of competitive national construction companies
through training, research and development, and start-up finance. Kenyans should
aim to build companies that can compete for the largest construction projects in our
region. This should go hand-in-hand with the re-entry of construction companies
from outside Kenya, as this is one way of raising standards and lowering overall
building costs.


Despite the numerous challenges facing housing and urbanisation, the sector presents
tremendous opportunities, and will play a complementary role to the development projects
proposed by Vision 2030. Housing is one of the principal sectors that can revitalise economic
growth in Kenya. Investment in housing and related infrastructure and services has multiple
direct and indirect effects. It triggers forward and backward linkages through additional
investments in manufacturing of building materials, transport and marketing. According to
the Economic Survey (2007), Kenya’s informal sector accounted for 94.3 per cent of all new
jobs created outside small-scale agriculture. A large proportion of this investment was in the
production of materials and services for the housing sector. Building and construction
contributed about 20.4 per cent of the non-monetary GDP and approximately 5 per cent of
the monetary GDP in 2003. In the same year, dwellings (including owner-occupied and
rented units) accounted for 4.7 per cent of the GDP. In 2003, the sector accounted for 11.7
per cent of the gross fixed capital formation compared to 8.3 per cent in 2002, hence
affirming that the sector has the potential to drive increases in economic growth in the
country. Based on this analysis, it is expected that housing and construction will support the
Vision by:


• Enabling the production of building materials to meet the huge demand for the
country and the entire Eastern and Central Africa region. This will be enhanced
through the sector’s direct linkages and hence, contribution to manufacturing, and
transport, as well as regional trade in goods and services;


• Generating opportunities for direct and indirect employment and wealth creation;


• Contributing to gross fixed capital formation as well as mobilisation of savings;


• Improving the urban environment (which is expected to cause higher productivity,

better safety conditions, enhanced revenue collection, both for central and local
governments, and reduction in health problems and hence expenditure due to better
living conditions); and increased vibrancy of capital and equity markets.


Strategies and goals for housing and urbanization
Planning and management of both rural and urban development is critical to the overall
vision of the housing and urbanisation requirements for the realisation of Vision 2030. For
this reason, it will be important to prepare comprehensive metropolitan and investment plans
covering six principle urban regions. To complement this, strategic development and
investment plans will be developed for special and border towns and all other municipal
councils. As mentioned in other sections of this document, a land use plan and policy
covering the entire country will also be prepared (Figure 4.7.4).


Page 149

Figure 4.8.5: Housing goals and strategies


• Pursue long-term finance
mobilization initiatives;

• Facilitate housing and
infrastructure bonds;

• Implement initiatives to bring
down the cost of housing
finance

• Introduce mortgage-backed
securities and develop a
secondary mortgage market

Vision for 2030
An adequately and decently housed nation

Strategic thrusts

Strategies

Planning and management
Achieve integrated
regional and urban
planning management

Housing development
Facilitate the development
and access to affordable
and adequate housing

Finance
Enhance access to
adequate finance for both
developers and buyers

Reforms
Reform the legislative,
institutional and regulatory
framework

• Develop strategic
development, physical and
investment plans for all
urban areas;

• Enhance urban and
regional planning capacity;

• Implement decentralised /
devolved structures and
improve financial
management of local
authorities;

• Institutionalize participatory
planning and development
initiatives

• Secure and service urban
land with physical and social
infrastructure (including use
of public private partnerships)

• Develop a national
construction capacity;

• Enhance utilization of
appropriate building materials
and low-cost construction
technologies;

• Implement a building
materials cost reduction
initiative

• Implement housing sector
incentives and market re-
engineering measures

• Harmonize all legislation
for the housing sector,
and prepare a national
land use policy as well as
an urban development
policy;

• Establish frameworks for
public private partnerships
in the housing sector;

• Create appropriate
institutions that strengthen
implementation of policies,
programmes and projects;

• Enforce housing sector
standards and codes as
well as zoning regulations

Achieve integrated regional and urban planning management, and boost annual urban housing production from current 35,000
units (2007/08) to 1.2,500 units; and improve 200,000 units in rural areas

• Capacity building for professional, skilled, motivated and adequate human powerCross cutting
issues

Overall

Specific

G
oa

ls
fo

r
20

12

• Improve livelihoods of
200,000 slum dwellers
under KENUP; service
10,000 plots through PPPs;

• Produce 55,000 units under
employer incentivized
programme, 100,000 under
urban renewal /
redevelopment programme,
& improvement of 1 million
rural houses

• Increase access to finance
for low income households
by 30%;

• Increase access to finance
for developers by 30%

• Reduce the housing plans
approval period from more
than 180 days to no more
than 90 days;

• Increase by 50% every
year the number of
contractors in various
categories

• Prepare 6 metropolitan
development plans;

• Prepare integrated strategic
development plans in 12
special local authorities and
border towns;

• Prepare integrated strategic
development and
investment plans in the
remaining 33 municipalities


Flagship projects
The following projects will be the principle vehicles for achieving housing and urbanisation
targets by 2012:

1. Prepare and implement strategic development and investment plans in six
metropolitan regions (Nairobi, Mombasa, Kisumu-Kakamega; Nakuru-Eldoret,
Wajir-Garissa-Mandera, Kitui-Mwingi-Meru). Similar plans will also be developed
for special border towns and all other municipalities;


2. Position the City of Nairobi as an all-round globally competitive city in business and

in tourism, and provide a high quality of life to all its residents. Turn Nairobi into a
24-hour business city.


3. Prepare a national land-use plan (as recommended under agriculture) in order to

facilitate better urban planning;


4. Install physical and social infrastructure in slums in 20 urban areas to formalise
slums, permit construction of permanent houses and attract private investment;


5. Produce 200,000 housing units annually by 2012 through a mixture of initiatives in

order to fill the huge housing gap in the country (e.g. build/enhance capacity in local
authorities to provide serviced land; and/or to produce low-cost housing);


Page 150

6. Establish housing technology centres in each constituency to increase access to
decent housing by promoting location-specific building materials and low-cost
housing;


7. Establish a secondary mortgage finance corporation to increase access to housing

finance; and


8. Enact the Housing Bill, 2006 to legislate for a one-stop housing development
approvals mechanism to fast-track approval of housing plans and reduce the time cost
of construction.


Key initiatives
In addition to the flagship projects, a number of initiatives as shown in Figure 4.7.5 will also
be carried out in the next five years.


1. Build capacity in Kenya’s urban planning departments: Planning departments will be
established in all urban local authorities. Existing central government planners will be
re-deployed to man the newly-established departments; this will alleviate the current
shortage of urban planning capacity at both technical and managerial levels in most
local authorities. Install user-friendly approval systems in local authorities.


2. Operationalise a national decentralisation and devolution policy: In order to ensure

that urban planning is properly integrated and all inclusive, a national
decentralisation/devolution policy will be operationalised to entrench local level
participatory planning and development.


3. Capacity building for the building industry: Capacity building will be supported to

enhance planning, implementation and management in the housing sector. Skills
inventory will be undertaken in order to focus on priority areas for capacity
development. To provide skills and local capacity in this sector, Kenyan companies
will compete in local and regional building markets development and a national
construction corporation will be established.


4. Access to finance: In order to increase access to finance among low-income

households and among developers, a secondary mortgage finance corporation, a
national housing fund and housing and infrastructure bonds will be established.
Mechanisms to support group or cooperative housing schemes will be instituted.


5. Legislative, institutional and regulatory reforms: To support Vision 2030 aspirations,

key legislative, institutional and regulatory reforms will be implemented. The
objective of the reforms will be to reduce the housing plans approval period (from
more than 180 days to no more than 90 days) and increase by 50 per cent every year
the number of contractors in various categories. Further, detailed guidelines will be
developed to promote public-private partnerships in the development of the housing
sector.


6. Low-cost housing: Enhance efforts to design and implement truly low-cost housing

models/prototypes/pre-approved building plans. This can be promoted through rural
technical institutes.


Page 151


Figure 4.8.6: Housing flagship projects and initiatives

• Establish a national housing
fund;

• Introduce housing and
infrastructure bonds

Vision for 2030
An adequately and decently housed nation

Strategic thrusts

Key initiatives

Planning and management
Achieve integrated
regional and urban
planning management

Housing development
Facilitate the development
and access to affordable
and adequate housing

Finance
Enhance access to
adequate finance for both
developers and buyers

Reforms
Reform the legislative,
institutional and regulatory
framework

• Establish planning
departments in all urban
local authorities and begin
by deploying existing
central government
planners to man the
departments;

• Operationalize a
decentralization /
devolution policy as well as
local level participatory
planning and development

• Capacity building to enhance
planning, implementation and
management and skills
inventory

• Prepare and implement a
national land use master
plan;

• Develop and
institutionalize public
private partnership (PPP)
guidelines;

• Establish a national
constriction corporation

Flagship projects • Install physical and social
infrastructure in slums in 20
urban areas;

• Produce 200,000 housing
units under various
initiatives;

• Introduce an appropriate
low-cost building materials
initiative, and set up
housing technology centres
in all 210 constituencies

• Establish a secondary
mortgage finance
corporation

• Enact the Housing Bill
(2006) to legislate for a
one-stop housing
development approvals
mechanism

• Prepare 6 metropolitan
development plans in 6
metropolitan regions, and
for special local authorities
and border towns and all
other municipal councils;

• Prepare a national land use
master plan


Page 152

4.9 Social Equity and Poverty Reduction

At independence in 1963, Kenya inherited a highly unequal society on many fronts. There
was inequity in entitlement to political, civil and human rights, and large disparities in
incomes and access to education, health and land, as well as to basic needs, including clean
water, adequate housing and sanitation. Since then, considerable progress has been made
towards resolving these problems, particularly in education and, more recently, in access to
improved health services and clean water sources. But much remains to be done to provide
Kenyans with equal opportunities so that every Kenyan has an equal chance to realise his or
her potential in life. There should be special programmes to benefit individuals and
communities who, through no fault of their own, cannot take advantage of such
opportunities. This is the key objective of the social equity component of the social pillar.
Apart from equity in access to opportunities on many fronts – geographical units, income
status, sex and age – it also emphasises equal political liberties and entitlement to human
rights for all. The political pillar is also dedicated to the realisation of equal citizenship rights
regardless of one’s origin, sex or age, and to equality of participation in the making of major
policy decisions. All these aspects are relevant to the creation of social equity and wealth
creation opportunities for the poor.

Some of the initiatives to reduce inequalities by 2030 have already been outlined in the
sectoral strategies discussed above. These are summed up in this section as the major
strategic thrust towards achieving a socially-just and equitable society, which constitutes the
overall policy objective of the Social Pillar. But there are other strategic policies towards
achieving a socially equitable and just society that will deserve continuous attention under
Vision 2030. These included the following:

1. Raising average annual incomes per person from an estimated KShs.45,447
(approximately US$650) in 2006 to above US$3,000 (at 2006 prices). This projection
is consistent with that of a rapidly-industrialising country;

2. Avoiding gross disparities while rewarding talent and investment risks in a manner
that is deemed socially just and therefore not politically destabilising;

3. Reducing poverty from the current level (46 per cent of total population) by between
3 and 9 per cent, which is where most industrialising countries in South East Asia
currently are;

4. Implementing policies that minimise the differences in income opportunities and
access to social services across Kenya’s geographical regions, paying special
attention to the most disadvantaged communities in the Arid and Semi-Arid Districts,
urban slums and pockets of extreme poverty in the high potential agricultural areas;
and

5. Increasing community empowerment through “devolved” public funds, weighted in
favour of the most disadvantaged communities, to be allocated in accordance with
locally-determined priorities through transparent and participatory procedures (i.e.
use of devolved funds to prioritise local needs). As GDP grows at the anticipated
level of 10 per cent annually under Vision 2030, the size of public revenue is
expected to rise and with it, the proportion allocated to funding devolved to local
communities. The strategy of increased empowerment for poverty reduction at
community level will, therefore, be highly dependent on the realisation of the overall
growth objectives projected in the Economic Pillar of Kenya Vision 2030.


Page 153

Situation analysis
As a measure of overall human welfare, the UNDP’s Human Development Index (HDI)
provides one of the best summaries of a country’s overall achievements in providing its
citizens with quality education, health care, longevity, and basic necessities to lead a decent
life along the lines spelt out by sectoral objectives of the social pillars in this document. The
HDI ranges from one (perfect equality in access) to zero (totally unequal). In practical terms,
it ranges from Norway (the best in 2004) which is 0.965 to Niger at 0.311. Figure 4.9.1
shows that Kenya’s HDI in 2006 was estimated at 0.532. While this is below Norway’s index
of 0.965, it represents an improvement from the 1990s. But this average also hides disparities
within the country, between urban and rural areas, between income groups, and between
geographical regions. The 2006 UNDP Human Development Report Kenya indicates that
Nairobi’s HDI is 0.773, Central Province’s is 0.637, Rift Valley’s is 0.528, Eastern
Province’s is 0.531, Coast Province’s is 0.518, Western Province’s is 0.516, Nyanza
Province’s is 0.468 and North Eastern Province’s is 0.285. As we move towards 2030, there
is need for Kenya to develop its own welfare indicators, which are more consistent with our
aspirations.

Figure 4.9.1: HDI for selected countries

Source: UNDP, Human Development Report (2006)

Country
Human Development Index
HDI

• The HDI ranges from 1.0
(perfectly ‘equal’) to 0.0
(perfectly ‘unequal’)

• Strategies to improve access to
vital services (e.g. education,
health, water and sanitation)
will uplift Kenya’s HDI from
0.532 to 0.750 or above.

0.965Norway

0.805Malaysia

0.784Thailand

0.768China

0.532Kenya


Source: UNDP, Human Development Report, 2006

To achieve that target, Kenya will consolidate the gains made under the ERS that targeted
improved education, health, water and sanitation, among other human resource investments,
to the most disadvantaged communities and geographical areas. The strategy for raising the
national HDI will therefore give priority to communities left behind, and thereby upgrade
them to national levels. This should raise the HDI from 0.532 to 0.750 or above.

As measured by the Gini Index, which rates income distribution from zero (perfect equality)
to one (absolute inequality), Kenya’s Gini Index was estimated at 0.425 in 1997 and declined
to 0.380 in 2006, according to data resulting from the 2005/06 Kenya Integrated Household


Page 154

Budget Survey. But while rural income disparities fell, those in the urban areas increased.
Yet, income distribution in Kenya compares favourably with that of her neighbours and other
developing countries. Through Vision 2030, Kenya aims to achieve an HDI of between 0.750
and 0.805, which is the range of rapidly industrialising countries in South East Asia.

Figure 4.9.2: Gini Indices and National Poverty Levels of selected countries (2006)

Source: UNDP, Human Development Report (2006); KIHBS

Country Gini Index

0.380

0.346

0.430

0.408

0.492

0.420

0.447

Malaysia

China

Ghana

Uganda

Thailand

Kenya

Tanzania

46

36

38

9

13

5

National Poverty Levels (%)


At an annual per capita income of US$650, Kenya’s top priority, therefore, is to raise
national incomes, particularly those of its poorest citizens, while ensuring that income
distribution improves, not worsens. To realise this objective, Vision 2030 intends to raise
overall incomes while reducing national poverty levels, now estimated at 46 per cent, to
single digits by 2030. This will eradicate core poverty, while increasing incomes and
opportunities for practically all of the population.

Strategies
One strategic intervention is to address poverty and equity issues through distributing growth
more evenly among income groups and strengthening social and political programmes
targeting the poor. This will be complemented by increased use of devolved funds, whose
absolute amounts are expected to rise as the economy expands. In 2006, funds disbursed
through such funds amounted to KShs. 32.54 billion covering the Constituency Development
Fund (CDF), the Local Authority Transfer Fund (LATF), the District Roads Fund, the
Constituency Aids Fund, the Constituency Educational Bursary Fund and free primary
education. To upscale the ground-level impact of these funds, Vision 2030 expects an
increase in funding to be matched by more transparent and participatory expenditure,
combined with enhanced efficiency in resource utilisation. In addition to direct intervention
through a devolved expenditure policy, all the economic, social and political strategies
proposed in this Vision have a strong equity component.


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Vision and strategies for achieving equity
Vision 2030 aims to “create a socially just and equitable society without extreme poverty”.
The ultimate objective will be to improve the livelihoods of the poor e.g. through better
technologies, better livestock management, better ASAL technologies etc.

Flagship projects

1. In order to better target and reach the poor than hitherto before, data collection will be
improved to map out the spread of the poor throughout the country and to create
profiles of the poor and their pressing needs;

2. Targeted programmes and projects will be formulated in light of the data profiles
established; and

3. An integrated national strategy will be developed to promote good governance and
effectiveness of devolution of funds.


Flagship projects and Initiatives

1. Gender and regional parity in access to education, health, and social services: The
objective under this thrust is to raise the levels of income, education, individual
health, longevity and access to basic needs of all Kenyans. This will raise the Human
Development Index for Kenya from about 0.5 in 2007 to between 0.6 and 0.7 by
2012. That achievement will reduce the social inequalities the country faces today in
access to income-generating opportunities and public services across gender, regions
and income groups. In addition, special welfare programmes will be provided to
meet the needs of the most disadvantaged individuals and communities in the country
in order to raise their overall welfare levels. The education and health sectors will
play a particularly unique role in the attainment of gender and regional parity.
Achievement of a net enrolment ratio of 95 per cent in primary schools, and a
transition rate of 80 per cent into secondary schools, as well as integration of pre-
schooling and primary education, will offer increased opportunities for currently
disadvantaged groups. Revamping the national health infrastructure, targeting of
preventive health care, reduction of child and maternal mortality ratios, reduction of
out-of pocket-expenditure to 25 per cent nationally (and to less than 25 per cent in the
poorest districts) will all prolong the lives of those currently under threat, thus
presenting them with better opportunities. In addition, the Ministry of Health will
complete ongoing institutional reforms to delegate health care delivery to local
hospitals and clinics with the full participation of communities in decision making.
This will allow the Ministry to focus on policy issues. Overall, health expenditure
will emphasise preventive and promotive care, which has the highest potential in
lowering the national disease burden.


2. Poverty reduction, and reduced income disparities: The objective under this thrust is

to reduce inequality in access to public services and income opportunities across
gender, social status and regions. The specific goal will be to reduce the national
poverty ratio from the current 46 per cent to a range of between 30 and 35 per cent by
2012. A key strategy to attaining this goal is to target more income-earning
opportunities for disadvantaged groups and regions (as identified above) in the six
growth sectors of tourism, agriculture, wholesale and retail trade, manufacturing,
BPO and financial services. There will also be increased infrastructure spending in
the sub-sectors of roads, water, sewerage, communications, electricity and lighting
targeting poor communities and regions. These measures will be aimed at creating an


Page 156

enabling environment for poor communities to take part in wealth creation for
themselves and their country.


3. Community empowerment through increased efficiency and impact of devolved funds:

The objective of this initiative is to increase the efficiency and developmental impact
of devolved funds. The goal for 2012 is to increase the amount of devolved funds by
the percentage growth in annual revenue. This goal will be achieved by increasing the
amount, efficiency and impact of devolved funds and by increasing public
participation and voice of the poorest members of local communities so that
development issues of concern to such members can be channelled into public policy.


Page 157

CHATER 5: POLITICAL PILLAR: MOVING TO THE FUTURE AS
ONE NATION


5.1 Overview

Since 2002, the people of Kenya have made remarkable gains in building a democratic
society that respects individual liberties, freedom of speech, association and worship, and the
rule of law. Through their elected representatives, they have introduced legislation to
improve national governance, to promote the effectiveness and efficiency of public services,
and to make the judiciary more transparent and accountable. Along that process, the
Government has adopted a legislative and institutional framework to fight corrupt practices,
whether these occurred in the previous or in the current administration. Kenya has also
introduced policy measures to promote efficient spending of public expenditure and to seal
loopholes in the tendering process that had previously led to abuses and loss of funds. By
tightening tax collection, Kenya has doubled annual Government revenue.

All these reforms have been underpinned by a public service reform programme
implemented in partnership with Kenya’s international development partners, which has
greatly improved the delivery of public services. An opinion survey conducted under the
African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM) in 2005 found that most Kenyans acknowledged
improvement in the Government’s performance particularly in the education and health
sectors. As a result, Kenya was awarded the United Nation’s public service award in 2007 in
recognition of these efforts. Kenya has better democratic governance indicators than most of
her neighbours and comparable countries. But this should not be a reason for complacency.
Under Vision 2030, Kenyans intend to achieve even higher standards in democratic rule and
the capacity of Government institutions to serve the public efficiently and with dignity.

Vision 2030 envisions a country with a democratic system reflecting the aspirations and
expectations of its people. Kenya will be a state in which equality is entrenched, irrespective
of one’s race, ethnicity, religion, gender or socio-economic status; a nation that not only
respects but also harnesses the diversity of its peoples’ values, traditions and aspirations for
the benefit of all. The Vision aims to move all Kenyans to the future as one nation.

The political pillar of Vision 2030 is “a democratic political system that is issue-based,
people-centred, result-oriented and accountable to the public’. An issue-based system is one
that meets the widest public interest. “People-centred” refers to responsiveness to the needs
and rights of citizens, whose participation in all public policies and resource allocation
processes is both fully appreciated and enabled. A result-oriented system is stable,
predictable and based on measurable outcomes (including performance). An accountable
system is open, transparent and permits the free flow of information, and is one in which the
leaders are accountable to citizens. Such a vision will guarantee Kenya’s attainment of
specific goals, strategies and flagship projects outlined under Vision 2030’s economic and
social pillars.

To meet the objectives outlined in the economic and social pillars, Kenya’s national
governance system will be reformed to acquire high-level capability consistent with a rapidly
industrialising country. Priority will be given to the enactment of all legislation and
administrative reforms suggested in Vision 2030. Kenya will adopt a democratic


Page 158

decentralisation process with substantial devolution in policy making, public resource
management and revenue sharing through selected devolved funds.


5.2 Guiding principles

In order to ensure that economic, social and political governance gains made under the
Vision are neither reversed nor lost as a result of regime changes over the different horizons,
the following nine governance principles shall be adhered to:

1. Constitutional reform: Kenyans will deliberate once again on the structure and
contents of their constitution in order to arrive at a nationally-endorsed document.

2. Sovereignty of the people: The constitution will be guaranteed by an
acknowledgement that Government derives its power from the people.

3. Gender equality: Kenya shall be a nation that treats its women and men equally.
4. National values, goals and ideology: In the pursuit of economic, social and political

aspirations, Kenyans shall formulate and adopt a core set of national values, goals and
a forward-looking political ideology. These will include acknowledgement of the
significance of God to the Kenyan people and an affirmation of the religious, cultural
and ethnic diversity of Kenyans. It will also affirm the indivisibility of Kenya as a
nation committed to democracy and the rule of law

5. A Bill of Rights: Under Vision 2030, the Bill of Rights will be secured and extended
to cover “second generation” rights covering the economic, social and, cultural fields,
the rights and needs of women and children, persons with disabilities, the elderly and
refugees.

6. A viable political party system: Kenya aims to have a strong and viable political party
system that will be guided by policy and ideological orientation. Under Vision 2030,
the founding of political parties to promote partisan religious, linguistic, racial,
ethnic, gender, corporate or regional agendas will be prohibited. All political parties
will be obliged to subscribe to a legally-binding Code of Conduct. Political parties
will be required to publish their manifestos before participating in elections.

7. Public participation in governance: The success of Vision 2030 depends on an open
and participatory political process. The political system shall provide that wananchi
have the right to participate – directly or indirectly – in all development policies
through representatives chosen in free and fair elections. It shall make it the duty of
public authorities to promote individual and community participation in social
activities and to influence decision making. Appropriate mechanisms to ensure
accountability of Government at all levels shall be provided. Kenyans will reserve the
right to individually or jointly petition or address complaints to public institutions and
authorities, including Parliament, and to insist that these be acted on.

8. Separation of powers: Implementation of Vision 2030 depends on the enhancement
of checks and balances between the three arms of Government: Legislature, the
Executive and the Judiciary.

9. Decentralisation: Vision 2030 envisages a democratic decentralisation of decision
making and resource distribution. This will be done through a devolved system that
takes account of local needs and priorities.


Political pillar strategies


Page 159

Transformation within Kenya’s political governance system under Vision 2030 will take
place across six strategic thrusts, whose overarching visions, goals for 2012 and specific
strategies are outlined below:

Rule of law
The 2030 vision is “adherence to the rule of law applicable to a modern, market-based
economy in a human rights-respecting state”. The goal for 2012 is to enact and implement a
legal and institutional framework that vital to promoting and sustaining fair, affordable and
equitable access to justice. Specific strategies will involve:

• Aligning the national policy and legal framework with the needs of a market-based
economy, human rights and gender equity commitments;

• Increasing service availability and access (or reducing barriers) to justice;
• Streamlining the functional organisation (including professionalisation) of legal and

judicial institutions to enhance inter-agency cooperation; and
• Inculcating a culture of compliance with laws and decent human behaviour.


Electoral and political processes
The 2030 vision is “genuinely competitive and issue-based politics”. The goal for 2012 is to
enact and put into operation the necessary legal and institutional frameworks to support
issue-based political processes. Specific strategies will involve:

• Introducing laws and regulations covering political parties;
• Enhancing the legal and regulatory framework covering the electoral process;
• Conducting civic education programmes to widen knowledge and participation

among citizens, leading to an informed and active citizenry;
• Strengthening laws on non-discrimination to promote inclusion of women and

disadvantaged groups in electoral and political processes; and
• Enriching the quality of Parliamentary debate by providing Members of Parliament

with relevant information on proposed laws and policies.

Democracy and public participation
The 2030 vision is “a people-centred and politically-engaged open society”. The goal for
2012 is to enact and operationalise necessary policy, legal and institutional frameworks to
enhance democratic participation. Specific strategies will involve:

• Pursuing constitutional and legal reforms necessary to devolve power and support
local governance;

• Encouraging formal and informal civic education and action programmes; and
• Promoting open engagement between Government and civil society, as well as the

free flow of information (e.g. through better and continuous engagement with the
media).


Transparency and accountability
The 2030 vision is “transparent, accountable, ethical and results-oriented Government
institutions”. The goal for 2012 is to enact and operationalise necessary policy, legal and
institutional frameworks needed to strengthen public transparency and accountability.
Specific strategies will involve:

• Strengthening the legal framework for ethics and integrity;
• Promoting results-based management within the public service;
• Encouraging public access to information and data;


Page 160

• Introducing civilian oversight around the key legal, justice and security institutions;
and

• Strengthening Parliament’s legislative oversight capacity.
Public administration and service delivery
The 2030 vision is “policy-driven and service-focused Government institutions”. The goal
for 2012 is to enact and operationalise necessary policy, legal and institutional frameworks
needed to strengthen public administration and service delivery. Specific strategies will
involve:

• Strengthening rules and processes around the policy cycle;
• Deepening the use of citizen and service charters as accountability tools;
• Strengthening economic governance for better macroeconomic management; and
• Inculcating a performance culture in the public service.


Security, peace-building and conflict management
The 2030 vision is “security of all persons and property throughout the Republic”. The goal
for 2012 is to enact and operationalise necessary policy, legal and institutional frameworks
around security, peace building and conflict management. Specific strategies will involve:

• Promoting public-private cooperation and civilian/community involvement for
improved safety and security;

• Deepening policy, legal and institutional reforms for improved enforcement of law
and order;

• Promoting processes for national and inter-community dialogue in order to build
harmony among ethnic, racial and other interest groups;

• Promoting peace building and reconciliation to improve conflict management and
ensure sustained peace within the country; and

• Inculcating a culture of respect for the sanctity of human life that restrains people
from resorting to violence a means to resolving personal and community disputes.
This should start with the family, schools, the church and all public institutions.


Political pillar flagship projects
The flagship projects for 2012 are:

1. Constitutional initiative –completion of the national Constitution together with its
enabling legislation;

2. Judicial and legal reforms initiative – this will involve reforms pertaining to the rule
of law and enhancement of the Bill of Rights, as well as reforming Government
institutions, especially those involving public participation in governance, and those
connected to transparency and accountability within the public sect;

3. Security and policing reform initiative;
4. Building a non-partisan professional research centre to enrich Parliamentary law-

making; and
5. Begin a national programme on attitudinal and value change to inculcate a culture of

voluntary compliance with the efficiency norms required by Vision 2030.


Page 161

CHAPTER 6: DELIVERING THE KENYAN VISION:
IMPLEMENTATION

Our first national vision was to be a free nation. We attained that vision in 1963 when the
British Union Jack was lowered and replaced by our national flag. We must now build on our
achievements and the determination shown by the Kenyans who sacrificed their lives so that
we could enjoy the freedom we now enjoy. Our post- independence leaders pledged to work
for a better Kenya devoid of “poverty, ignorance and disease”. That vision is yet to be fully
realized.. Vision 2030 intends to make that dream a reality by bringing Kenya into the league
of middle-income countries, where citizens enjoy widespread prosperity under which
incidents of extreme poverty are few.. Vision 2030 intends to build on our strengths, our
determination and our mutual destiny as Kenyans. Dissemination forums held in all
provinces left no doubt that Kenyans not only welcome the promises of Vision 2030, but are
ready and willing to do their part to realise it.

Kenyans have no illusions that the journey we are about to embark on will not be easy.
Vision 2030 will be accomplished by our collective efforts; each Kenyan has a role to play.
Kenyans have expressed the wish for a vision that is insulated from political competition
among parties. They also want a vision that will improve livelihoods in their local
communities. They also want to see results that will directly improve their lives. The
government and the experts had these objectives in mind when preparing the vision. The
projects proposed in Vision 2030 cover all the regions of the country and aim to ensure that
everyone community stands gain from it. Vision 2030 stresses equitable development and
modernisation through institutional changes and flagship projects distributed throughout the
country to take advantage of each region’s uniqueness. The projects will be implemented
through five-year plans. The first five-year plan runs from 2008 to 2012 and replaces the
Economic Recovery Strategy that expires this year.

In the implementation of Vision 2030, the issue of primacy of infrastructure, particularly
roads, will be addressed. Provincial and district forums frequently raised this issue. Recent
government budgets have allocated unprecedented amounts of money to roads and
infrastructure generally. Although considerable gains have been made in improving
infrastructure since 2003, so bad was the situation prior to that date, that the importance of
rehabilitating, building or expanding infrastructure is still a priority issue for most Kenyans.
Other priority areas include science, technology and innovations, land reforms, human
resources development, security and public sector reforms.

The long-term perspective in this document comes after economic recovery has been
completed under the ERS. Vision 2030 therefore comes at a time when Kenyans feel more
optimistic about the future of their country than they did previously. They have all,
regardless of party affiliation, observed the progress the country has made since 2003 and are
willing to build on that, in order to build a better Kenya for themselves and for future
generations.

Building on our common determination, our common heritage and our hopes for a more
prosperous nation offering a high quality of life to all its citizens, we can realise Vision 2030
and join the ranks of the newly-industrializing economies. From our struggle for


Page 162

independence to winning gold medals in sports, we have shown determination that has we
must capitalize on.
Vision 2030 comes at a time in the history of Kenya when the Government, the opposition
and the people have agreed on the need to move “from business as usual to business unusual”
Vision is designed to provide practical solutions to problems that the country faces at this
juncture of our history, it cannot afford to be rigid in its approach. The international
economy is in constant flux. New technologies products and markets will appear before
2030 that Kenya can ill-afford to ignore. Besides our traditional markets, the Vision must
take stock of the unprecedented developments that we see in Asia. Kenyan economic sectors
and our investors may strike out in directions we cannot fully predict today. Such is the
essence of globally competitive markets. This calls for a pragmatic approach to development
by Kenya, constant monitoring of both internal and external developments and a political will
to make changes rapidly so that our economy does not lose any ground. A Vision that
responds to the dynamic needs of the people must be flexible enough to respond to changing
local and international realities. Vision 2030 is, therefore, expected to be a “living
document” that will respond to within and outside of the country changes but still remain
focused on the goals.

In the implementation of Vision 2030, we intend to draw lessons from our past experiences
and from our peer nations that have successfully implemented similar projects. Through
Vision 2030, the current generation intends to bequeath future generations with a much better
Kenya. Kenyans have decided to take this opportunity to make history by being the
generation that will fulfill the prophesy of the founding fathers, of our independence – a
proud country, made of hard-working people that will conquer the ills of illiteracy, poverty
and disease.

To deliver on this ambitious process of national transformation will require a fundamental
shift from business as usual to business unusual (from multiple and often uncoordinated
levels of decision making to centralised implementation process); a new management
philosophy (from a limited sense of urgency to relentless follow up); legislation (from slow,
reactive to fast, proactive legislating); special budgeting (from low and dispersed to high and
‘ring-fenced’ investments) as well as management of top talent (from shortage of skills to a
war for talent). To this end, a Semi Autonomous Government Agency (SAGA) with the
requisite capacity is being established to oversee the implementation of all Vision 2030
projects. In doing so, the agency will work in close collaboration with government ministries
and departments as well as the private sector, civil society and other relevant stakeholder
groups.

The Vision Delivery Secretariat

In order to successfully realize Vision 2030 and to particularly ensure the timely
implementation of the flagship projects, the Government of Kenya intends to create a Vision
Delivery Secretariat (VDS) to be housed in the Office of the President. The Secretariat will
be managed by a Director-General of the Vision 2030 Office, under the overall guidance of
the Vision 2030 Delivery Board, which shall play a policy-making and advisory role. The
VDS shall be organized into eight departments. The Departments will correspond to the main
project clusters or sectors of the Vision covering the three pillars.


Page 163

Among other things, the VDS shall provide strategic leadership and direction in the
realization of Vision 2030 goals, and closely collaborate with line ministries in developing
the Five-year Medium Term plans for the realization of the Vision. The VDS will also have
clear institutional linkages with other existing institutions, structures and organizations both
in the Public as well as the Private Sector.


Phone numbers

  • 20022007
  • 16573635
  • 145480171460
  • 20305
  • 740050201195330322
  • 203017
  • 434372325260
  • 2006201220062012
  • 20072030
  • 262224
  • 14316745410235290316
  • 351276224128
  • 200001020304052006
  • 200520122005201220062012
  • 343388439497562605636
  • 17045266
  • 720811332108280402
  • 736243406148320317
  • 1413292325
  • 964832668547496493506
  • 122139211392
  • 200016001800
  • 20307
  • 155190512253
  • 59017212989
  • 292528
  • 176029181657
  • 3792331944770040402
  • 2006201220052012
  • 1603662293
  • 2008201219
  • 64007000700075
  • 272310256141
  • 6514554012123370220
  • 200220032004200520062007
  • 20042005200120022003

Phone numbers

  • 27.2 31.0 25.6 14.1
  • 2000 01 02 03 04 05 2006
  • 2 0001 600 1 800
  • 16 57 3 635
  • 2006 20122005 2012
  • 640.0700.0700.075
  • 2005 2012 2005 2012 2006 2012
  • 34.3 38.8 43.9 49.7 56.2 60.5 63.6
  • 434372325260
  • 2007 - 2030
  • 72.0 8.1 13.3 2.1 0.8 2.8 0.4 0.2
  • 170 45 266
  • 2030 7
  • 141 329 2 325
  • 2002 - 2007
  • 2030 17
  • 74.0 0.5 0.2 0.1 19.5 3.3 0.3 2.2
  • 2.6.2.2. 2.4
  • 73.6 2.4 3.4 0.6 14.8 3.2 0.3 1.7
  • 35.1 27.6 22.4 12.8
  • 2006 20122006 2012
  • 964832668547496493506
  • 160 366 2 293
  • 155 1 905 12 253
  • 2004 2005 2001 2002 2003
  • 6.5 14.5 54.0 12.1 2.3 3.7 0.2 2.0
  • 2008 - 2012 19
  • 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
  • 14.3 16.7 45.4 10.2 3.5 2.9 0.3 1.6
  • 59.0 17.2 12.9 8.9
  • 2.9.2.5. 2.8
  • 1 760 2 918 1 657
  • 122 1 392 11 392
  • 2030 5
  • 145 4 801 71 460
  • 37.9 23.3 19.4 4.7 7.0 0.4 0.4 0.2

Law clause

art 1

Law code

Filename extension

pdf

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Component_1:
  • Y component: Quantization table 0, Sampling factors 2 horiz/2 vert
  • Y component: Quantization table 0, Sampling factors 2 horiz/2 vert
  • Y component: Quantization table 0, Sampling factors 2 horiz/2 vert
  • Y component: Quantization table 0, Sampling factors 2 horiz/2 vert
  • Y component: Quantization table 0, Sampling factors 2 horiz/2 vert


Component_2:
  • Cb component: Quantization table 1, Sampling factors 1 horiz/1 vert
  • Cb component: Quantization table 1, Sampling factors 1 horiz/1 vert
  • Cb component: Quantization table 1, Sampling factors 1 horiz/1 vert
  • Cb component: Quantization table 1, Sampling factors 1 horiz/1 vert
  • Cb component: Quantization table 1, Sampling factors 1 horiz/1 vert


Component_3:
  • Cr component: Quantization table 1, Sampling factors 1 horiz/1 vert
  • Cr component: Quantization table 1, Sampling factors 1 horiz/1 vert
  • Cr component: Quantization table 1, Sampling factors 1 horiz/1 vert
  • Cr component: Quantization table 1, Sampling factors 1 horiz/1 vert
  • Cr component: Quantization table 1, Sampling factors 1 horiz/1 vert


Compression_CompressionTypeName:
  • deflate
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  • Baseline


Creation-Date:
2013-01-30T08:08:39Z

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IHDR:
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  • width=1, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=1, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=1, height=2, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=1, height=2, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=1, height=2, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=1, height=2, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=1, height=2, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=1, height=2, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=1, height=2, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=1, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=1, height=2, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=1, height=2, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=1, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=1, height=2, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=1, height=2, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=1, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=1, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=1, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=7, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=7, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=10, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=13, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=13, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=13, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=14, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=14, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=14, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=14, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=14, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=25, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=25, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=25, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=25, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=25, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=25, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=25, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=25, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=25, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=25, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=25, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=25, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=26, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=26, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=26, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=26, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=22, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=22, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=13, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=13, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=13, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=7, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=10, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=10, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=7, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=10, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=13, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=15, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=16, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=16, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=16, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=17, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=17, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=18, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=15, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=17, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=31, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=31, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=31, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=31, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=31, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=31, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=31, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=31, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=31, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=31, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=31, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=31, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=32, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=32, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=32, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=27, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=27, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=16, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=16, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=16, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=15, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=7, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=10, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=10, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=14, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=15, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=16, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=16, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=16, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=17, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=17, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=18, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=18, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=15, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=16, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=31, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=31, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=31, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=31, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=31, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=31, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=31, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=31, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=31, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=31, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=31, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=32, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=32, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=32, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=32, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=27, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=27, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=7, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=7, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=10, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=13, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=15, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=16, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=16, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=17, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=18, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=18, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=15, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=16, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=31, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=31, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=31, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=31, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=31, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=31, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=31, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=31, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=31, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=31, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=31, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=32, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=32, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=32, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=32, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=27, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=27, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=16, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=10, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=10, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=7, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=10, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=10, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=13, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=14, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=15, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=16, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=16, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=17, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=18, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=18, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=18, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=18, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=18, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=18, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=18, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=18, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=18, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=18, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=34, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=34, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=33, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=33, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=33, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=33, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=33, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=33, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=33, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=33, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=33, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=33, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=33, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=33, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=33, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=33, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=33, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=33, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=33, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=33, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=33, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=33, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=33, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=28, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=28, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=28, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=17, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=17, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=17, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=17, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=1, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=1, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=7, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=7, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=7, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=7, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=7, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=7, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=1, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=10, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=10, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=13, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=13, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=13, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=14, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=14, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=14, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=14, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=14, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=14, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=14, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=14, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=14, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=14, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=25, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=25, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=25, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=24, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=24, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=25, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=25, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=25, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=25, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=25, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=25, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=25, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=25, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=25, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=25, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=25, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=25, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=25, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=25, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=25, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=25, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=25, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=25, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=25, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=25, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=25, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=21, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=21, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=21, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=13, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=13, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=13, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=13, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=13, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=1, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=7, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=7, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=7, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=7, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=7, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=10, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=13, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=16, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=17, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=18, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=18, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=19, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=7, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=7, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=7, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=7, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=7, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=1, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=1, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=1, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=10, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=10, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=1, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=1, height=2, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=10, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=13, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=14, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=15, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=15, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=15, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=10, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=7, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=7, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=7, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=16, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=14, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=20, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=21, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=24, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=10, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=25, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=10, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=26, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=26, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=13, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=27, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=10, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=28, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=29, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=7, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=30, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=7, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=28, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=30, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=29, height=2, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=27, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=14, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=1, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=16, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=15, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=20, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=21, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=24, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=25, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=26, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=26, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=13, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=28, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=29, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=30, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=31, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=29, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=30, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=29, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=27, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=14, height=2, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=16, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=14, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=21, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=22, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=24, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=25, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=26, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=26, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=13, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=27, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=28, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=29, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=30, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=29, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=30, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=29, height=2, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=26, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=14, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=10, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=7, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=16, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=14, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=20, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=24, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=25, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=26, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=26, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=31, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=29, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=30, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=29, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=27, height=2, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=14, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=1, height=2, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=1, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=1, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=1, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=1, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=7, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=1, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=1, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=10, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=13, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=14, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=14, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=15, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=15, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=15, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=15, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=15, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=15, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=15, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=15, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=15, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=16, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=15, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=20, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=21, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=24, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=26, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=27, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=27, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=28, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=29, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=30, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=31, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=29, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=30, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=29, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=27, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=14, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=2, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=2, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=7, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=17, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=20, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=22, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=23, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=24, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=25, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=26, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=27, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=27, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=27, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=27, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=26, height=2, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=25, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=24, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=21, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=19, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=15, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=7, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=10, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=7, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=13, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=14, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=15, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=15, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=15, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=10, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=7, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=13, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=15, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=17, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=31, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=33, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=34, height=2, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=35, height=3, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=37, height=2, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=35, height=2, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=34, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=33, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=19, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=17, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=7, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=15, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=13, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=7, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=15, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=16, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=16, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=16, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=17, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=17, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=17, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=18, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=17, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=17, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=16, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=16, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=7, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=1, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=18, height=2, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=19, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=20, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=27, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=30, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=31, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=33, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=34, height=2, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=39, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=39, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=37, height=3, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=38, height=2, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=38, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=39, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=40, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=34, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=31, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=29, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=28, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=27, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=21, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=10, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=1, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=7, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=1, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=1, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=1, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=14, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=15, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=16, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=16, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=17, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=17, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=17, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=17, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=17, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=17, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=17, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=18, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=18, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=15, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=14, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=13, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=13, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=1, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=10, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=1, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=1, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=10, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=13, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=14, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=14, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=1, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=1, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=10, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=1, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=14, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=17, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=20, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=1, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=23, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=24, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=24, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=25, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=22, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=21, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=20, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=1, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=17, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=1, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=14, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=7, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=10, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=14, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=14, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=10, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=14, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=17, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=20, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=23, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=24, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=24, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=25, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=22, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=21, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=20, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=17, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=14, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=7, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=1, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=16, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=18, height=2, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=20, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=21, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=22, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=7, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=22, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=7, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=24, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=25, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=25, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=27, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=27, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=24, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=24, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=24, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=23, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=23, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=21, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=20, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=21, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=7, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=16, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=7, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=17, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=10, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=27, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=7, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=34, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=39, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=47, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=48, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=49, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=51, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=44, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=42, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=3, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=39, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=35, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=27, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=21, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=14, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=7, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=6, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=16, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=14, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=20, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=21, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=24, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=25, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=26, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=26, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=27, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=30, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=31, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=29, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=30, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=29, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=27, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=14, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=5, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=2, height=2, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=27, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=27, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=28, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=29, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=30, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=31, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=29, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=27, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=14, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=12, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=11, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=9, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=8, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=4, height=1, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=51, height=35, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=38, height=26, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=38, height=26, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=52, height=34, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=46, height=34, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=59, height=19, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=59, height=19, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=48, height=33, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=48, height=33, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=64, height=33, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=42, height=29, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=45, height=31, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=45, height=31, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=37, height=13, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none
  • width=37, height=13, bitDepth=8, colorType=RGB, compressionMethod=deflate, filterMethod=adaptive, interlaceMethod=none


Image_Height:
  • 35 pixels
  • 35 pixels
  • 34 pixels
  • 34 pixels
  • 30 pixels


Image_Width:
  • 51 pixels
  • 60 pixels
  • 66 pixels
  • 47 pixels
  • 45 pixels


Last-Modified:
2013-01-30T08:08:39Z

Last-Save-Date:
2013-01-30T08:08:39Z

Number_of_Components:
  • 3
  • 3
  • 3
  • 3
  • 3


Number_of_Tables:
  • 4 Huffman tables
  • 4 Huffman tables
  • 4 Huffman tables
  • 4 Huffman tables
  • 4 Huffman tables


Resolution_Units:
  • inch
  • inch
  • inch
  • inch
  • inch


Thumbnail_Height_Pixels:
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0


Thumbnail_Width_Pixels:
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0


Transparency_Alpha:
  • none
  • none
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X_Resolution:
  • 72 dots
  • 72 dots
  • 72 dots
  • 72 dots
  • 72 dots


Y_Resolution:
  • 72 dots
  • 72 dots
  • 72 dots
  • 72 dots
  • 72 dots


access_permission_assemble_document:
true

access_permission_can_modify:
true

access_permission_can_print_degraded:
true

access_permission_can_print:
true

access_permission_extract_content:
true

access_permission_extract_for_accessibility:
true

access_permission_fill_in_form:
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created:
2013-01-30T08:08:39Z

creator:
COMPAQ

date:
2013-01-30T08:08:39Z

dc_creator:
COMPAQ

dc_format:
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dc_title:
Microsoft Word - VISION 2030 Sessional Paper final 09 11 12_1_.doc

dcterms_created:
2013-01-30T08:08:39Z

dcterms_modified:
2013-01-30T08:08:39Z

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